Bio 150 Ch11v

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Bio 150 Ch11v
2014-03-26 16:46:02
vocab words
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  1. A form of physical exercise, such as running or swimming, that promotes cariopulmonary efficiency and fatigue resistance more than muscular strength. Compare resistance exercise.
    Endurance Excercise
  2. A neurotransmitter released by somatic motor fibers, parasympathetic fibers, and some other neurons, composed of choline and an acetyl group
  3. A muscle contraction in which the muscle shortens and moves a load while its internal tension remains constant
    Isotonic contraction
  4. A stable voltage across the plasma membrane of an unstimulated cell
    Resting membrane potential
  5. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, the portion of a myofibril from one Z disc to the next, constituting one contractile unit
  6. An intracellular protein that binds calcium ions and mediates many of the second messenger effects of calcium
  7. A microscope that uses an electron beam in place of light to form high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the surfaces of objects; capable of much higher magnification than a light microscope
    Scanning electron microscope
  8. Nonstriated invoulantary muscle found in the walls of the blood vessels, many of the viscera, and other places
    Smooth muscle
  9. A junction at the end of an axon where it stimulates another cell
  10. The tendency of a stretched structure to return to its original dimensions when tension is released
  11. A rapid voltage change in which a plasma membrane briefly reverses electrical polarity; has a self-propagating effect that produces a traveling wave of excitation in nerve and muscle cells
    Action potential
  12. A motor protein that constitues the thick myofilaments of muscle and has globular, mobile heads of atpase that bind to actin molecules
  13. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle cell, serving as a calcium reservoir
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  14. The swollen tips of the distal branches of an axon; the site of synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitter release
    synaptic knobs
  15. A protein found in smooth endoplasmic reticulum that reversibly binds and stores calcium ions, rendering calcium chemically unreactive until needed for such processes as muscle contraction
  16. A spheroid organelle in a synaptic knob containing neurotransmitter
    Synaptic vesicle
  17. A tissue composed of elongated, electrically excitable cells specialized for contractio; the three types are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle
    Muscular tissue
  18. A red oxygen-storage pigment of muscle; supplements hemoglobin in providing oxygen for aerobic muscle metabolism
  19. A narrow space between the synaptic knob of an axon and the adjacent cell, across which a neurotransmitter diffuses
    Synaptic cleft
  20. The minimum voltage to which the plasma membrane of a nerve or muscle cell must be depolarized before it produces an action potential
  21. A bundle of myofilaments forming an internal subdivision of a cardiac or skeletal muscle cell
  22. An energy storage molecule in muscle tissue that donates a phosphate group to ADP and thus regenerates ATP in periods of hypoxia
    Creatine phosphate
  23. A catecholamine that functions as a neurotransmitter and adrenal hormone, especially in the sympathetic nervous system
  24. Events that link the synaptic stimulation of a muscle cell to the onset of contraction
    Excitation-contraction coupling
  25. A tubular extension of the plasma membrane of a muscle cell that conducts action potentials into the sarcoplasm and excites the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    T tubule
  26. An enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, thus halting signal transmission at a cholinergic synapse
  27. The ability of a cell to respond to a stimulus, especially the ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce membrane voltage changes in response to stimuli; irritability
  28. A law that relates the tension generated by muscle contraction to the length of the muscle fiber prior to stimulation; it shows that the greatest tension is generated when the fiber exhibits an intermediate degree of stretch before stimulation
    Length-tension relationship
  29. A diffrence in ion concentration from one point to another, resulting in a gradient of both chemical concentration and electrical charge
    Electrochemical gradient
  30. Having the same osmotic pressure as human cells or some other reference solution
  31. The interval between a stimulus and response, especially in the action of nerve muscle cells
    Latent period
  32. A muscle contraction in which internal tension rises but the mucsle does not shorten
    Isometric Contraction
  33. A depression in a muscle fiber where it has synaptic contact with a nerve fiber and has a high density of neurotransmitter receptors
    Motor end plate
  34. One motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by it
    Motor unit
  35. A state of continual, partial contraction of resting skeletal or smooth muscle
    Muscle tone
  36. A protein microfilament responsible for the contraction of a muscle cell, composed mainly of myosin or actin
  37. A statement pertaining to action potentials and the contraction of muscle fibers that a cell either produces its maximum response or no response at all, depending on whether the stimulus is above or below threshold.
    All-or-none law
  38. A synapse between a nerve fiber and a muscle fiber
    Neuromuscular junction
  39. A wave of constriction traveling along a tubular organ such as the esophagus or ureter, serving to propel its contents
  40. A perriod of time after a nerve or musle cell has responded to a stimulus in which it cannot be reexcited by a threshold stimulus
    Refractory period