Bio Chapter 10

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Bio Chapter 10
2014-04-21 17:45:42

Bio Chapter 10
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  1. Gregor Mendel
    Was born in 1822 and educated in a monastery. He became a monk and later joined a science club.
  2. Why did Mendel use the garden pea in his experiment?
    • 1. Several varieties
    • 2. Easy to Grow
    • 3. Small in Size
    • 4. Produced large amounts of offspring
    • 5. Self Pollinated
    • 6. Previous work of Knight
  3. Why was it important that the Pea Plant self fertilized?
    So Mendel knew that it was truly breading. There are is no chance of mixing plants.
  4. F1 Filial Generation
    Crossed the white and the purple pea plants and got all four purple pea plants (Same results after several test.)
  5. F2 Filial Generation
    Crossed purple flower from the F1 Generation and got three purple flowers and one white. (3/4 Dominate 1/4 Recessive)
  6. Disguised Ratio
    1:2:1 (Dominant: Not True- Breeding dominate {Purple plants but carried white traits}: True breeding recessive.
  7. Mendel's Hypothesis
    • Traits are not directly transmitted to offspring. 
    • Each parent contains two copies of genes. 
    • Alternative (different forms of the genes) forms of genes produce alternative traits. {Pp=pP}
    • Allieals do not effect each other
    • An apperance of an Allieal doesn't insure a trait
  8. Homozygous
    When both gene copies are the same
  9. Heterozygous
    When two gene coppies are different
  10. Allieals
    Copy of genes with dominate and recessive genes
  11. Phenotype
    Appearance of an individual
  12. Genotype
    Type of genes is the (Determines the Phenotype)
  13. Punnett Square
    A modified multiplication table, called a Punnett square, is an easy way to organize all the possible genotype when conducting a genetic cross.
  14. Sex Type
    Gamit Transfer. Possible trait characteristics could be predicted by a Punnett Square
  15. Number of Chromosomes
  16. Number of Gamits
  17. One gene can be responsible for one phenotype
    One phenotype can be the result of multiple genes.
  18. Mendel's first law
    or the Law of Segregation, states that the two alleles of a trait separate during the formation of gametes, so that half of the gametes will carry one copy and half will carry the other copy.
  19. Mendel's Second Law
    Or Independent Assortment was determined when he worked with two traits at a time in dihybrid crosses. This law, called the Law of Independent Assortment, states that genes located on different chromosomes are inherited independently.
  20. Genome
    Each cell of a person contains the same DNA molecules. The human genome consists of about 22000-25000 genes compact into 23 chromosomes.
  21. Polygenic inheritance
    Many genes and the gradation in phenotypes is called Continuous Variation.
  22. Pleitropy
    One gene affects many others.
  23. Incomplete Dominance
    The ability of two alleles to produce a heterozygous phenotype that is different from either homozygous phenotype. (White and red rose breading to make a pink one)
  24. Codominance
    The effects of both alleles at a particular locus are apparent in the phenotype of the heterozygote. (ABO blood group = IA, IB and i, IA and IB are codominant and i allele is recessive)
  25. Autosomes
    The 22 pairs of chromosomes that match perfectly in humans, leaving the rest of the chromosomes to be sex linked
  26. Trisomic
    Sometimes during meiosis, the homologous chromosomes or the sister chromatids do not separate properly, a mistake knows as nondisjunction. This leads to aneuploidy, which means having an abnormal number of chromosomes. trisomics have gained an extra copy of chromosomes.
  27. Tay-Sachs Disease
    An incurable herditary disorder that prgressively destroys the brain of those who are homozygous for the trait. It is carried as a recessive and is most common in Jews from Easter and Central Europe.