Muscular System

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Muscular System
2014-03-26 03:51:10

Human Anamtomy Introduction
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  1. What are the 3 types of muscles?
    • Smooth Muscle: pushes fluid and solids along the digestive tract
    • Skeletal Muscle: move the body by pulling on bones of the skeleton

    Cardiac Muscle: pushes blood through the arteries and the veins
  2. What are the four shared traits of the muscles?
    • 1. excitability: ability to respond to stimulation, stimulated by the nervous system
    • 2. extension: the ability to continue to contract muscle
    • 3. elasticity: the ability of a muscle to rebound toward its original length after contraction
    • 4. contractility: the ability to shorten actively and exert a pull or tension that can be harnessed by connective tissues.
  3. Define Orfices
    openings of the digestive or urinary tract
  4. Skeleton muscles
    • can take up as much as 40% body mass
    • attaches to the bones and cartilages
    • is adaptable and strong
  5. What are the muscle functions?
    • 1. Produce movement
    • 2. Maintaining posture
    • 3. Generate heat
  6. 3 types of connective muscle tissue
    • 1. Epimysium: outside layer. covers the skeletal muscle. connected to deep Fascia
    • 2. perimysium: the middle layer, contains blood vessels and nerves that branch to supply each fascicle
    • 3. endomysium: covers the individual fibers
  7. What is aponeurosis?
    a flat ribbon like tendon
  8. What makes skeletal muscle fibers?
    myoblasts form during development
  9. Abductor vs. Adductor
    move your arm away from the body vs. moving it towards the body
  10. Supination
    palm up
  11. pronation
    palm down
  12. dorsiflexion
    moving your foot downward
  13. plantar flexion
    moving the foot upward
  14. myotome
    a section of muscle
  15. thick filaments
    Called myosin
  16. thin filaments
    Called actin
  17. What is it called when fibers join a nerve to a muscle?
    A synapse
  18. What is Rigor Mortis?
    Its the muscle stiffening after death. It occurs about 3-4 hours after death and ends after about 48-60 hours
  19. What causes rigor mortis?
    ATP can't cross it's bridges.
  20. Why do muscles contract when you hold out your arms for too long?
    lactic acid builds up and oxygen runs out. Also it produces much heat.
  21. What is a sarcolemma?
    cell membrane in the skeletal muscle
  22. What is the all or none principle?
    a muscle will contract completely or not at all.
  23. Muscle tone
    the resting tension in a skeletal muscle. It stabilizes the bones and joints
  24. Excessive repeated stimulation to produce near-maximal tension in skeletal muscles can lead to what?
  25. inadequate stimulation to maintain resting muscle tone causes muscles to become flaccid and under go what?
  26. What happens when the muscle ages?
    The aging process reduces the size, elasticity, and power  of all muscle tissues.
  27. The superficial muscle in the neck that is stimulated by back massage?