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2014-03-27 17:59:28

Ch 10 Topics 6-10
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  1. Nerve cells; are specialized to react to physical and chemical changes surrounding it and conduct the input to dendrites; one of two cell types of neural tissue.
  2. A neuron's _____ contains granular cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, a golgi apparatus, and microtubules.
    Cell Body
  3. Small cellular processes that receive the input from neurons about a physical or chemical change surrounding the neuron.
  4. Tiny, thorn-like spines on the surfaces of some dendrites that are contact points for other neurons.
    Dendritic Spines
  5. Longer processes that carry the info from the dendrites away from the cell in the form of impulses to other neurons or cells outside the nervous system; nerve fibers, bundles of them make up nerves.
  6. Branches given off by axons.
  7. Specialized ending on the extensions of axons.
    Axon Terminal
  8. The initial portion of an axon closest to the cell body; where stimuli gather before entering the postsynaptic neuron in nerve impulses.
    Axonal Hillock
  9. The end of an axon terminal close to the receptive surface of another cell, separated by the synaptic cleft.
    Synaptic Knob
  10. A network of fine threads that extends into the axon and supports it.
  11. Membranous packets of nissl bodies which consist mainly of rough E.R.
    Chromatophilic Substance
  12. Bioelectric signals that the axons convert input to, they allow the neuron to communicate with other neurons and with cells outside the nervous system.
  13. The small space between a neuron and the cell(s) with which it communicates.
  14. Biological messenger molecules that carry the electrochemical messages that are sent and received across synapses.
  15. Neuroglia in the PNS that enclose large axons of peripheral neurons in lipid sheaths; they speed neurotransmission.
    Schwann Cells
  16. Coverings that form as schwann cells wrap around axons, composed of myelin which give the schwann cell membranes a higher proportion of lipids.
    Myelin Sheath
  17. The parts of the schwann cells that contain most of the cytoplasm and nuclei that remain outside of and surround the myelin sheath.
    Neurilemmal Sheath
  18. Narrow gaps in the myelin sheath between schwann cells.
    Nodes of Ranvier
  19. Axons that have a myelin sheath and appear white; masses of them compose the white matter in the brain and spinal cord.
    Myelinated Axons
  20. Axons that lack a myelin sheath and appear gray; masses of them compose the gray matter in the CNS.
    Unmyelinated Axons
  21. What happens when a neuron loses its myelin?
    Its axons don’t regenerate after neuron injury, and nerve impulses occur at a slower rate.
  22. A group of neurons outside the CNS.
  23. A group of neurons inside the CNS.
  24. A bundle of neurons in a nerve along the spinal cord.
    Nerve Tract
  25. What are the three structural types of neurons?
    Multipolar, Bipolar, and Unipolar
  26. A type of neuron that has a cell body with many processes, one is an axon, the rest are dendrites; most common type of neuron in the brain and spinal cord.
    Multipolar Neuron
  27. A type of neuron that has a cell body with a process, rising from each end, one axon and one dendrite; located in specialized parts of the eyes, nose, and ears.
    Bipolar Neuron
  28. A type of neuron that has a cell body with a single process that divides into two branches and functions as an axon; located in ganglia outside the brain or spinal cord.
    Unipolar Neuron
  29. What are the three functional types of neurons?
    Sensory, Interneuron, and Motor
  30. A type of neuron that conducts impulses from receptors in peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord; most are unipolar, some are bipolar.
    Sensory Neuron
  31. A type of neuron that relays information between neurons in the brain and spinal cord; is multipolar.
  32. A type of neuron that conducts impulses from the brain or spinal cord out to effectors; is multipolar.
    Motor Neuron