Who were the two major civilizations that lives in this agricultural region and what societal contributions did they make?
Over thousands of years, Mesopotamian societies such as the Sumerians and the Babylonians invented sophisticated irrigation and farming methods. They built huge, pyramid-shaped temple towers,and made advances in mathematics, astronomy, government, and law. Using a writing system called cuneiform, they produced great works of literature, including a poem known as the Epic Of Gilgamesh. Mesopotamia's achievements helped shape later civilizations in Greece, Rome, and Western Europe.