Chapter 18 - Southwest Asia (The Middle East)
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What is the main climate in this region?
Most of the region falls within an arid, or very dry, climate zone.
Where is Arabian Peninsula?
The Arabian Peninsula consists of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, and several other countries. It is a single, vast plateau that slopes gently from the southwest to the northwest.Long mountain ranges that parallel the peninsula's southwestern, northwestern, and southeastern coasts are actually the deeply eroded edges of the plateau.
What is important about the Suez Canal and Red Sea?
The Red Sea has been one of the world's busiest waterways since Egypt's Suez Canal, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, was completed in 1869.
What is the major natural resource of this region and where is most of it found?
Natural gas (petroleum) is found in Southwest Asia.
History of the Region
Where was one of the first major agricultural regions on earth?
10,000 years ago it was Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was a fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present-day Iraq.
Who were the two major civilizations that lives in this agricultural region and what societal contributions did they make?
Over thousands of years, Mesopotamian societies such as the Sumerians and the Babylonians invented sophisticated irrigation and farming methods. They built huge, pyramid-shaped temple towers,and made advances in mathematics, astronomy, government, and law. Using a writing system called cuneiform, they produced great works of literature, including a poem known as the Epic Of Gilgamesh. Mesopotamia's achievements helped shape later civilizations in Greece, Rome, and Western Europe.
What three major world religions originated in Southwest Asia?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Who do all three of these faiths believe is messenger of god who first taught their faith?
What is the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian holy books called?
Torah, Quran, and Bible.
Who started Islam, who is their god?
What is the holy city of Islam?
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
- 1. Promising faith to Allah and accepting Muhammad as Allah's prophet.
- 2. Pray 5 times a day towards Makkah. If you are in Makkah you pray towards the Mosque. If you are in the Mosque you pray towards the Kaba.
- 3. Fast during the month of Ramadan. You can only eat before sunrise and after sunset.
- 4. Aiding the poor and unfortunate.
- 5. At some point in your life you need to make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Makkah.
What is monotheistic?
The belief in just one God.
When did Islam spread quickly around Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean?
What is Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict?
Palestine - a former British mandate on the east coast of the Mediterranean; divided between Jordan and Israel in 1948. The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension and military conflicts between the Arab League and Israel and between Arabs and Israelis.
Who are the Kurds?
The Kurds, a fiercely independent people living in eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, and western Iran, have fought to gain their own country.
What city in Syria has constant bombings and attacks in recent years?
Iraq invaded whom to start the Persian Gulf War in 1990?
What extremist Islamist organization planned and carried out the attacks on September 11, 2001?
Life in the Region
Where would we find the largest building in the world?
Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
What is the main language spoken and ethnic group in Southwest Asia?
Arabic. Southwest Asia is home to many different ethnic groups who share similar religions. The Arabs of Southwest Asia believe themselves to be descendants of Abraham in the Bible, through his son Ishmael.
With the oil and gas producing countries what is a major societal issue they are facing?
The struggle to control oil has led to tension and wars. It has also resulted in increased intervention in Southwest Asia by foreign powers.
What natural resources is lacking in this area and controlling this becomes crucial to every country?
Do you think trade restrictions are effective at changing a government's policies?
Yes, because it makes it so we can import and export goods and money.
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