A place on the car seen in relation to the target area that is used to determine the precise moment to make a change in steering, acceleration, or braking action when exiting a turn or curve
Left turns: left-front corner post
Right turns: space under the inside rear-view mirror
The inside-rear tire around which the vehicle pivots during backing turns
A substance that causes hallucinations
A drug that produces a temporary increase in the functional activity of a body organ or part
A distance recording device
Cars stopped behind your vehicle which reduce your risk of a high impact rear-end crash
A drug or agent that slows the body's vital functions
Targeting (target, target area, target path)
Target: An object that appears in the center of the intended path-of-travel as far ahead as one can see
Target area: The area around the target
Target path: The area leading to the target
The illusion that you are traveling at a speed much higher or lower than your actual speed, usually experienced just after a drastic change in road speed such as when exiting a highway into a neighborhood
Check your speedometer to counteract velocitation
Slowing down or, if necessary, stopping your vehicle safely to allow another vehicle or a pedestrian to continue safely
Intersection with no signs or signals: Look and yield the right of way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching from your right at the same time
Stop before you enter or cross a road from an alley, private road, driveway or other place not controlled by signal lights or yield signs. Stop at the point nearest the roadway you are entering. Yield to approaching vehicles.
The practice of driving on a road too close to a frontward vehicle, at a distance which does not guarantee that stopping to avoid collision is possible.
Risks being involved in a preventable skidding crash
Central vision sees detail
Fringe vision sees hands and edges of the book
Peripheral vision sees the color of the walls and movement in the room
Driving impaired means to operate a vehicle while functioning poorly.
Consequences of driving impaired: fines, jail time, loss of driving privileges, vehicle impound fees, etc.
Effects of alcohol on drivers: diminishes ability to make good judgments and decisions, concentration is less focused, reaction time slows, motor coordination becomes less precise and effective, and vision is blurred and less acute
Effects of marijuana on drivers: delays reactions to sights and sounds, difficult to judge distances, and timing and coordination is delayed
A method of steering where your hand don not cross in front of the air bag
Used for most turns and curves
Searching Intersections at 45 & 90 degrees
Actively search intersections at 45 degrees when moving or 90 degrees when stopped
Communicating with other drivers
Effective communication can solve potential problems and prevent conflicts with other roadway users.
Send and receive communication in a timely and positive manner.
Use headlights to be seen and to warn of impending danger
Tap brakes, and the lights will warn traffic approaching fast from the rear
Use lane position and speed adjustments to indicate your intent to turn, change lanes, & warn others of upcoming blockages
Driving in reduced visibility
Sharing the road with other vehicles
Rules of the road at intersections
Stopping in traffic
Basic speed laws
The Basic Rule Law: You must drive at a speed that is reasonable and cautious for existing conditions.
15 MPH: When driving in alleys, narrow residential areas
20 MPH: In any business district, within a school zone
25 MPH: In residential districts (unless posted otherwise), in public parks, on ocean shores (if vehicles are permitted)
55 MPH: On all roads and highways not meeting any other definition
Interstate Speed Limits: Speed limits will vary on interstate highways, but may be posted up to 70 MPH
Line-of-sight & Path-of-travel
LOS: Where you can see
POT: Space that your vehicle will occupy as you travel on the roadway toward the target area
Front & Rear Wheel Skids
Control where and when traffic moves and provides clues to LOS and POT problems
Residential streets have two or more lanes but no lines
Arterials (high-capacity urban roads) have lines and two or more lanes
Yellow lines separate traffic moving in opposite directions
White lines separate traffic moving in the same direction
Three categories of signs
Regulatory signs are red/white or black/white. They state the law.
Warning signs are yellow/black or orange/black. They warn that a change in your attention, speed, and/or position is needed.
Guide signs are blue, green, or brown. They provide information and help guide you from one place to another.
Controlled intersections are designed to manage traffic flow and assign yielding responsibilities
See in time to manage your space
Before the turnAim to the target area
Signal at least 5 seconds ahead
Apply the brake early
Check rear zone conditions
Check blind spot and move to the correct side position (Right turn: 3 feet from right curb, Left turn: LP2 (LP1 with oncoming traffic))
Stopped turnsMake a legal stop before any pedestrian safety zone
Make a safety stop if your view is blocked
When it's clear, turn your head, aim across the front limit reference point at your new target, and use light acceleration
Begin turning right when front bumper is even with the curb line
Begin turning left when your view to the target area does not cut across the curb line
Moving TurnsSearch intersection while approaching
Decrease brake pressure slightly before turning the wheel
When transition peg aligns with target, release brake pressure, begin straightening, and accelerate
Point of no return
Point beyond which a driver can no longer stop safely without entering an intersection - two seconds away
Following other vehicles
Three Searching Ranges
Target Area Range: As far ahead as you can see
15-Second Range: Where you solve problems effectively. Check other zones to gather options, then get best LP and speed control to minimize risk.
4-Second Danger Zone: where you get a final update of how you are controlling your POT. Last opportunity to get the best control of speed and position before reaching the point where you are unable to stop before entering a space.
Passing & Being Passed
Position yourself at least 3 seconds behind the vehicle you want to pass and at the edge of your lane to get the best view
Get an open path
Check front, rear, and blind spot
Aim to target area
accelerate quickly into passing lane
Leave room for vehicle you're passing
When you see both headlights in the inside rearview mirror, signal and return to your lane
Reduce speed slightly (stay off brake)
Move to LP3
Once passed, create time and space ahead and behind
Don't speed up until you've created 4 seconds following time
Potential stop positions
Pulling the steering wheel down with one hand while the other hand crosses over to pull the wheel further down.
Used for very sharp, slow turns, and the one-handed method for backing.
The 6 Reference Points
3-6 in. from line to the left: line runs into point on hood that's about one ft. from left edge of car (LP2, position for left turn)