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- A place on the car seen in relation to the target area that is used to determine the precise moment to make a change in steering, acceleration, or braking action when exiting a turn or curve
- Left turns: left-front corner post
- Right turns: space under the inside rear-view mirror
The inside-rear tire around which the vehicle pivots during backing turns
A substance that causes hallucinations
A drug that produces a temporary increase in the functional activity of a body organ or part
A distance recording device
Cars stopped behind your vehicle which reduce your risk of a high impact rear-end crash
A drug or agent that slows the body's vital functions
Targeting (target, target area, target path)
- Target: An object that appears in the center of the intended path-of-travel as far ahead as one can see
- Target area: The area around the target
- Target path: The area leading to the target
- The illusion that you are traveling at a speed much higher or lower than your actual speed, usually experienced just after a drastic change in road speed such as when exiting a highway into a neighborhood
- Check your speedometer to counteract velocitation
- Slowing down or, if necessary, stopping your vehicle safely to allow another vehicle or a pedestrian to continue safely
- Intersection with no signs or signals: Look and yield the right of way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching from your right at the same time
- Stop before you enter or cross a road from an alley, private road, driveway or other place not controlled by signal lights or yield signs. Stop at the point nearest the roadway you are entering. Yield to approaching vehicles.
- The practice of driving on a road too close to a frontward vehicle, at a distance which does not guarantee that stopping to avoid collision is possible.
- Risks being involved in a preventable skidding crash
- Central vision sees detail
- Fringe vision sees hands and edges of the book
- Peripheral vision sees the color of the walls and movement in the room
- Driving impaired means to operate a vehicle while functioning poorly.
- Consequences of driving impaired: fines, jail time, loss of driving privileges, vehicle impound fees, etc.
- Effects of alcohol on drivers: diminishes ability to make good judgments and decisions, concentration is less focused, reaction time slows, motor coordination becomes less precise and effective, and vision is blurred and less acute
- Effects of marijuana on drivers: delays reactions to sights and sounds, difficult to judge distances, and timing and coordination is delayed
- A method of steering where your hand don not cross in front of the air bag
- Used for most turns and curves
Searching Intersections at 45 & 90 degrees
Actively search intersections at 45 degrees when moving or 90 degrees when stopped
Communicating with other drivers
- Effective communication can solve potential problems and prevent conflicts with other roadway users.
- Send and receive communication in a timely and positive manner.
- Communication options
- Use headlights to be seen and to warn of impending danger
- Tap brakes, and the lights will warn traffic approaching fast from the rear
- Use lane position and speed adjustments to indicate your intent to turn, change lanes, & warn others of upcoming blockages
- Reverse lights
- Hazard lights
- Turn signals
- Hand gestures
Driving in reduced visibility
Sharing the road with other vehicles
Rules of the road at intersections
Basic speed laws
- The Basic Rule Law: You must drive at a speed that is reasonable and cautious for existing conditions.
- 15 MPH: When driving in alleys, narrow residential areas
- 20 MPH: In any business district, within a school zone
- 25 MPH: In residential districts (unless posted otherwise), in public parks, on ocean shores (if vehicles are permitted)
- 55 MPH: On all roads and highways not meeting any other definition
- Interstate Speed Limits: Speed limits will vary on interstate highways, but may be posted up to 70 MPH
Line-of-sight & Path-of-travel
- LOS: Where you can see
- POT: Space that your vehicle will occupy as you travel on the roadway toward the target area
- Control where and when traffic moves and provides clues to LOS and POT problems
- Residential streets have two or more lanes but no lines
- Arterials (high-capacity urban roads) have lines and two or more lanes
- Yellow lines separate traffic moving in opposite directions
- White lines separate traffic moving in the same direction
- Three categories of signs
- Regulatory signs are red/white or black/white. They state the law.
- Warning signs are yellow/black or orange/black. They warn that a change in your attention, speed, and/or position is needed.
- Guide signs are blue, green, or brown. They provide information and help guide you from one place to another.
- Controlled intersections are designed to manage traffic flow and assign yielding responsibilities
- See in time to manage your space
- Before the turnAim to the target area
- Signal at least 5 seconds ahead
- Apply the brake early
- Check rear zone conditions
- Check blind spot and move to the correct side position (Right turn: 3 feet from right curb, Left turn: LP2 (LP1 with oncoming traffic))
- Stopped turnsMake a legal stop before any pedestrian safety zone
- Make a safety stop if your view is blocked
- When it's clear, turn your head, aim across the front limit reference point at your new target, and use light acceleration
- Begin turning right when front bumper is even with the curb line
- Begin turning left when your view to the target area does not cut across the curb line
- Moving TurnsSearch intersection while approaching
- Decrease brake pressure slightly before turning the wheel
- When transition peg aligns with target, release brake pressure, begin straightening, and accelerate
Point of no return
Point beyond which a driver can no longer stop safely without entering an intersection - two seconds away
- Three Searching Ranges
- Target Area Range: As far ahead as you can see
- 15-Second Range: Where you solve problems effectively. Check other zones to gather options, then get best LP and speed control to minimize risk.
- 4-Second Danger Zone: where you get a final update of how you are controlling your POT. Last opportunity to get the best control of speed and position before reaching the point where you are unable to stop before entering a space.
Passing & Being Passed
- Position yourself at least 3 seconds behind the vehicle you want to pass and at the edge of your lane to get the best view
- Get an open path
- Check front, rear, and blind spot
- Signal intentions
- Aim to target area
- accelerate quickly into passing lane
- Leave room for vehicle you're passing
- When you see both headlights in the inside rearview mirror, signal and return to your lane
- Being Passed
- Reduce speed slightly (stay off brake)
- Move to LP3
- Once passed, create time and space ahead and behind
- Don't speed up until you've created 4 seconds following time
- Pulling the steering wheel down with one hand while the other hand crosses over to pull the wheel further down.
- Used for very sharp, slow turns, and the one-handed method for backing.
The 6 Reference Points
3-6 in. from line to the left: line runs into point on hood that's about one ft. from left edge of car (LP2, position for left turn)