Card Set Information
components of the vestibular system
What is the vestibular system?
occurs in the inner ear controlling for bodily/spatial orientation giving the ability to stand straight and walk straight.
What does the vestibular apparatus do?
allows us to know which direction is up.
What does the Otolith organ detect?
detection of gravity and tilt.
What two systems combine to form the vestibular-ocular reflex?
Through the connection of the vestibular and visual muscular systems by nerves into the brain.
What is sporadic eye movement?
post rotational nystagmus (world moving around irrationally-apparent motion being bounced around-motion sickness)
What is proprioception?
sense that permits us to understand when its our own hand touching us rather than someone else's (prevents us from being able to tickle ourselves)
What is haptic perception?
allows us to explore our environment (environmental stimuli picked up by our skin, muscles, and tendons)
What is synesthesis?
combination of two senses (synthesized together; visual with auditory, touch with taste etc.)
What is the ventriloquist effect?
belief of orientation from which sound originates (vision dominates sound)
What are the semicircular canals?
Anterior (lean forward/backward motion), Posterior (tilt left/right motion), and Horizontal (shake left/right motion)
What is velocity?
speed and direction at which something moves.
What is acceleration?
change in velocity.
How do the hair cells react in the vestibular system?
As the mechanoreceptors of spatial motion.
What makes up the vestibular organs?
3 semicircular canals (angular motion) and 2 otolith organs (linear acceleration and gravity)
How is vertigo caused?
over stimulation of the rotational/spinning senses.
What is the osseous canal?
a bony canal filled with fluid called perilymph.
What is endolymph?
fluid located within a smaller bony structure within the osseous.
What is an ampulla?
expansion of each semicircular canal duct that includes the cupula, crista, and hair cells where transduction occurs.
What are cupula?
an elastic dam extending to the opposite wall of the ampulla with endolymph on both sides of the dam (permit the ability for hair cells to collect and transduce mechanical information)
What are cilia?
hairlike structures that move as part of vestibular transduction. (located at the tips of cupula)
What are crista?
specialized detection of angular motion within the cupula.
What is oscillatory?
constant rhythm of back and forth movements.
What is sinusoidal?
motion trajectory at a frequency of 0.05 hertz- repeating back and forth motion that takes 20 seconds to complete.
What does fourier analysis tell us?
any complex motion can be broken down into some number of single-frequency components.
What otolith organs sense gravity and linear acceleration?
utricle and saccule.
What is the macula?
fluid-filled sac in the utricle and saccule where sensory transduction occurs.
What are otoconia?
tiny calcium carbonate stones in the ear that provide inertial mass for the otolith organs providing sense of gravity and linear acceleration.
What are vestibulo-ocular reflexes?
eye muscles that stabilize vision during head motions counter-acting the motions of the head.