Chapter 11 - Teams
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The highest level of performance that a group is capable of achieving at a given point in time.
Performance difficulties that a group experiences because of coordination and motivation problems.
Increases in potential performance that result from new ways of motivating and coordinating group members.
Actual Group Performance
The performance level attained by a group.
What is the equation for Actual Group Performance?
Action Group Performance = Potential Performance - Process Losses
The tendency of individuals to exert less effort when they work in a group than when they work alone.
A condition in which some group members, not wishing to be considered suckers, reduce their own efforts when they see social loafing by other group members.
How to reduce Social Loafing?
- Make individuals feel they are making valuable contributions to the group
- Keep the group as small as possible
- Make individual contributions identifiable
The extent to which the work performed by one member of a group affects what other members do.
Pooled Task Interdependence
The task interdependence that results when each member of a group makes a separate and independent contribution to group performance.
Sequential Task Interdependence
The task interdependence that results when group members must perform specific behaviors in a predetermined order.
Reciprocal Task Interdependence
The task interdependence that results when the activities of all work group members are fully dependent on one another.
- A process gain that occurs when member of a group acting together are able to process more or better output than would have been produced by the combined efforts of each person acting alone.
- "As a group, the result is greater than the sum of all parts."
The attractiveness of a group to its members.
Factors that contribute to Group Cohesiveness
- Group size
- Similarity/diversity of group members
- Competition between groups
Consequences of Group Cohesiveness
- The level of participation and communication in the group
- The level of conformity to group norms
- Group goal accomplishment
Top Management Team
The team of managers who report to the CEO and determine what an organization is trying to accomplish and develop plans for goal attainment.
Research and Development (R&D) Team
A team that is formed to develop new products, may be cross-functional, and is often used in high-tech industries.
An R&D team that is created to expedite new product design and promote innovation in an organization.
A team in which a significant amount of communication and interaction occurs electronically rather than face to face.
A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, goals, an approach for which they are each held accountable.
Work Group Characteristics
Benefits of Small Groups
- Regular interaction
- Ease of sharing information
- Recognition of individual contributions to group
- Strong identification with group
- Higher group satisfaction
Benefits of large groups
- More resources
- Division of labor
Benefits of homogeneous groups
- Collegiality amongst group members
- Information sharing
- Low levels of conflict
- Few coordination problems
Benefits of heterogeneous groups
- Diversity of views represented
- High performance
- Variety of resources
- Communicates how work behaviors contribute to goal achievement
- Provides sense of meaning (task identity)
Types of Social Facilitation Effects
- Audience Effects
- Co-Action Effects
Presence of other group members enhances performance of repetitive tasks.
Presence of other group members impairs performance of difficult tasks
Why do group members conform to norms?
How can groups respond to deviants?
- Attempt to change deviant
- Expel deviant
- Change norm
Causes of Social Loafing
- Lack of connection between inputs and outcomes
- Perception that individual efforts are unnecessary or unimportant
- Large group size
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