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What is BSE?
Bovine Spungiform Encephalopathy (mad cow disease)
Where did BSE first appear?
What is CJD and what species is it seen in?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease seen in humans
Where is BSE seen in children and women and what causes it?
Kurru, New Guinea caused by cannibalism
What is mad cow in sheep called?
What causes BSE, in theory?
What is the human BSE called now?
nCJD (new variant)
What is gluconeogenisis?
When there is not enough carb energy, liver cells use fats and proteins to make new glucose for the blood.
When does gluconeogenesis occur?
When blood glucose levels are low or when insufficient glucose is entering the cells and glycogen stores are depleted, like in Diabetes Mellitus
How many times more energy comes from fat than carbs or protiens?
2 1/2 times more
What are fats?
Complex molecules that are broken down by the digestive system into smaller molecules known as fatty acids.
What are fatty acids used for?
A source of fuel for energy, hormone production, skin and coat oils, membranes, and as body call parts.
Four main fat functions
- Supple energy
- Essential fatty acids
- Carry fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
What are the three essential fatty acids?
- Linoleic Acid-plant source
- Linolenic Acid-plant source
- Arachidonic Acid-animal source
What are the most potent sources of essential fatty acids for dogs?
Which fatty acid do cats have a dietary requirement for?
What are considered normal components of hair and nails?
Fats and fatty acids.
What happens to skin and hair when the body is deficient of fats and fatty acids?
- Hair-becomes dry and course
- skin-becomes dry, thickened, and flaky
Sources of fat
- Horse fat
- Poultry fat
- Cottonseed oil
- Vegetable oil
- Fish oil
What causes and inflamed gall-bladder?
A high fat diet eaten for too long
What are fats converted to in the small intestine?
Glycerol and fatty acids
Are fats water soluble?
Absorption of fats occurs where?
In the small intestine.
How long does it take for digestion and absorption to complete?
Within 2 hours.
Increased lipase production in the pancreas can cause what?
Higher fat absorption produces what in the blood?
Slowed circulation, shortened clotting time, and decrease in sedimentation rate.
What can pancreatitis be classified as?
Acute or Chronic
Symptoms of Pancreatitis
- Abdominal Pain
- Elevated pancreatic enzymes
- Diarrhea (not too much)
Causes of pancreatitis
- Hyperlipemia- high fat/increased fat
- Infectious disease like parvo
What is the lab analysis for pancreatitis?
Elevated lipase and amylase
Treatment for pancreatitis
- NPO- no PerOs
- IV fluids for dehydration
- Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
What type of diet do you feed after a pancreatic episode?
- Diet low in fat
- No table food
What are proteins?
Groups of amino acids joined by peptide linkage.
How many amino acids are involved in the synthesis of body proteins?
What are essential amino acids?
Those which can't be formed within the body rapidly enough to meet the bodies requirements and therefore must be supplemented.
What are non-essential amino acids?
Those that the body makes enough of.
List 5 essential amino acids.
What essential amino acid is specific to cats?
Taurine for eye and cardiac health
What percent of animals body is protein?
What are some foods that are high in protein?
Eggs, meat, beans, and chicken
What is crude protein?
The nitrogen in a food source.
What is the biological value?
The estimate of protein quality in a food.
What is the biological value for eggs, milk, liver, wheat, and corn?
- Eggs- 100%
- Milk- 92%
- Liver- 79%
- Wheat- 48%
- Corn- 45%
Higher protein in a diet does what?
- Less food required to meet daily needs
- Promotes muscle growth
- Provides amino acids during periods of stress
Three facts about protein digestion
- Occurs mainly in stomach
- Amino acids absorbed in small intestine
- Digestibility of most pet food is 70-85%
Where are amino acids absorbed in the small intestine transported to?
What happens to excess amino acids?
They are excreted through the kidneys.
What happens if the kidneys are not able to properly filter waste?
The urea will remain in the body as a toxic substance.
How do we test for kidney function?
BUN- Blood Urea Nitrogen test
What are the two BUN tests?
- Dip stick- Azostix
- Blood Chemistry Analyzer- Vet test 8008
What are the normal values of a BUN?
15-20 mg/dl for most species
What might cause a BUN to rise?
- Excessive dietary protein
- Renal disfunction- Heartworms, congestive heart failure, medication
What might cause a BUN to go down?
- Protein deficiency- starvation
- Liver disfunction
What is the main purpose of carbs?
To provide energy.
Easily broken down Ex: Monosaccharides like glucose and frustose
Combination of two molecules of monosaccharides. Ex: Disaccharides like sucrose, maltose, lactose
one molecule each of glucose, galactose, and fructose. Ex: Raffinose
Hard to break down. Made of numerous molecules of simple sugars Ex: Dextrin, starch, cellulose, glycogen
4 classifications of carbs
Simple sugars, complex sugars, trisaccharides, polysaccharides
Some digestion of carbs occurs where by what?
In the mouth by the enzyme salivary amylase
Where is the primary site for carb digestion/
In the intestine
Starch, glycogen, and disaccharides are broken down to what?
Most carbs in pet rations are absorbed as what?
Absorbed galactose and fructose are converted to what?
Normal value for blood glucose is what?
What is hypoglycemia?
Decrease in blood glucose
Causes of hypoglycemia
- Pancreatic dysfunction
- Heavily worked animals
- small breeds that metabolize quickly
What is hyperglycemia?
Increase in blood glucose
Causes of hyperglycemia
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus
Hyperglycemia, glucose in urine, ketonemia, polyuria, and polydipsia
What is lipemia?
fat in blood
Can ruminants break down fiber?
What is fiber?
Term for carbs whose bonds are resistant to the action of GI enzymes.
What are the main fiber carbs?
Cellulose, Hemicellulose, pectin,and lignin
What is the source of fiber in pet foods?
Cereal grains and milling by-products
Why are ruminants prone to bloat?
When fiber breaks down, fermentation occurs and produces heat and gas
What is fiber good for?
- Prevention of constipation
- bulking agent to promote colonic peristalis
- Water absorbing properties
- Reduce caloric intake while giving a full feeling
- (In general, weight loss)
What diseases can be associated with lack of fiber in humans?
- Varicose veins
- Colon cancer
- colon polyps
- coronary artery disease
What do you do if an animal has eaten something toxic?
- 1 tbs hydrogen peroxide PerOs
- Vitamin K injection
- Coat Intestinal tract with activated charcoal
How does fiber help to reduce the absorption of carcinogens, steroids, and other toxic material?
By speeding up the intestinal transport therefore allowing less time for absorption and by absorbing the toxin into the fecal material more or diluting it by absorbing water.
Fasting Blood Glucose Test
Fast for 12 hours, blood test