Bio 1102 Exam 2

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Bio 1102 Exam 2
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2014-03-27 06:13:37
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Biology 1102 Exam 2
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  1. Plants: 
    Domain & Kingdom
    General Charecteristics
    • - Domain: Eukarya (multicellular)
    • - Kingdom: Plantae
    • - Autotrophs: produce own food/nutrients
    • - Cell walls made of cellulose
  2. Angiosperms
    Flowering plants
  3. Root System
    • - Located underground
    •       - anchor and support
    • -Absorbs water and minerals
  4. Shoot System
    • - Only in angiosperms (flowering plants)
    • - Consists of stem and leaves
    • - Stems role: transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. Also transports the products of photosynthesis. 
    • - Leaves role: Photosynthesis
    •         - Water, Carbon Dioxide, Sunlight
  5. Stem
    • - Main axis of the plant (angiosperms) 
    • - Supports the leaves
    • - Contains vascular tissues
  6. Leaf
    • - Major part of the plant that carries out photosynthesis
    • - Waxy cuticle that reduces gas exchange
    • - Contain Guard Cells (epidermal cells with chloraplasts) and Stomata (small pore in leaf epidermis)
    • - Usually Broad and flat
    •       - Blade: Wide portion of leaf
    •       - Petiole: Stalk that attaches blade to stem
    •       - Axillary Bud: Originates from leaf axil
  7. Deciduous Plants
    Plants that lose their leaves every year.
  8. Meristematic Tissue
    - Allows a plant to grow its entire life by retaining cells that have the ability to divide and produce more tissues
  9. Apical Meristem
    • - Meristematic tissue that is present in the root tip and shoot tip
    • - Produces 3 types of primary meristem which develop into 3 types of specialized tissue
    •        - Epidermal Tissue
    •        - Ground Tissue
    •        - Vascular Tissue
  10. Epidermal Tissue
    • - Forms the outer protective covering of a plant 
    • - Modified in the roots, stems, and leaves
  11. Ground Tissue
    • - Forms the bulk of a plant and contains 3 types of specialized cells 
    •        - Parenchyma: deeper within plant tissue
    •        - Collenchyma: Under the cuticle
    •        - Sclerenchyma: Lingin
  12. Difference between Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Sclerenchyma cells
    Thickness of cell membrane.
  13. Vascular Tissue
    • - Provides internal system of conduction
    • - 2 types
    •       - Xylem, Phloem
  14. Xylem
    • - Vascular tissue that transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
    • - Complex Tissue
    •        - 2 types of conducting cells
    •             - Vessel elements: Shorter and wider with perforated plates in their end wall
    •             - Tracheids: Long with tapered ends and are less efficient transporters, but allow water to move across end or side walls
  15. Phloem
    • - Vascular tissue that transports sugars and other organic compounds throughout the plant.
    • - Sieve-Tube members: 
    •        - Arranged to form a continuous Sieve-Tube
    •        - Contain cytoplasm, but no nuclei
    •        - Have nucleated companion cell that keeps both cells alive  
    •        - Connected by plasmodesmata  
    • - Compound Tissue
  16. Complex Tissue
    Contains more than one type of cell
  17. Cotyledons
    Stores the nutrient molecules that the embryo uses
  18. Monocot
    • - One cotyledon
    • - Endosperm is the food-storage tissue
    • - Xylem and phloem in a ring
    • - Vascular bundles are scattered
    • - Leaf veins form parallel pattern
    • - Flower parts in 3 and multiples of 3
  19. Eudicots
    • - Two or more cotyledons
    • - Cotyledons supply nutrients to embryo and seedling
    • - Phloem between arms of xylem
    • - Vascular bundles in distinct ring
    • - Leaf veins form a net pattern
    • - Flower parts in 4 and 5 and their multiples
  20. Transpiration
    When water reaches the leaves and then ecaporates
  21. Opening and Closing of Stomata
    • *Stoma are bordered by guard cells*
    • - Influenced by environmental conditions
    • - Open stomata: guard cells fill with water, gas exchange occurs
    • - Closed stomata: guard cells are empty
  22. Plants evolved from:
    • - Freshwater green algae 450 million years ago
    • - Common Traits:
    •       - Chlorophyll A and B
    •       - Store excess carbs as starch
    •       - Have cellulose in cell wall
  23. 5 Major Evolutionary Events for Life on Land
    • 1. Embryo Production
    • 2. Vascular Tissue
    • 3. Megaphylls
    • 4. Seeds
    • 5. Flowers
  24. Alternation of Generations
    • - Two multicellular individuals (sporophyte and gametophyte) alternate, each producing the other
    • - Plants differ as to which generation is dominant
    •       - Dominant Generation: Most conspicuous and carries out most of the photosynthesis
    •           - Nonvascular plants: Gametophyte 
    •           - Vascular plants: Sporophyte 
    •       - A shift to sporophyte dominance is an adaptation for life on land
  25. Sporophyte
    • - 2n (Diploid)
    • - Produces spores by meiosis
  26. Gametophyte
    • - n (Haploid)
    • - Produces gametes by mitosis
    • - Sperm and egg fuse = diploid zygote
  27. Changes That Occurred with Adaptation to Terrestrial Life
    • - Gametophyte = Smaller
    • - Sporophyte = Larger
    • - Mosses and ferns: spores disperse gametophyte
    • - Gymnosperms and angiosperms: seeds disperse sporophyte
  28. Nonvascular Plants
    • - Lack vascular tissue, true roots, stems, leaves
    • - Dominant Generation = Gametophyte
    • - Flagellated sperm swim to egg
    • - 3 Divisions- Phylum: Bryophtye
    •        - Horns, Liverworts (flat, lobed thallus OR leafy), Mosses
  29. Mosses
    • - Live in a variety of enviornments
    • - Most can reproduce asexually by fragmentation
  30. Adaptations and Uses of Nonvascular Plants
    • - Can live on bare rock, fences, cracks in sidewalks, stone walls
    • - Help convert rocks to soil
    • - Peat moss forms in bogs as it accumulates
    •        - Used as fuel, holds water
  31. Vascular Plants
    • - Have vascular tissue
    • - Have true roots, stems, and leaves
    • - Dominant Generation: Sporophyte
    • - Some do not produce seeds
  32. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • - Two groups: Lycophytes & ferns and their allies
    • - Produce windblown spores
    •       - Flagellated sperm released by antheridia
    •           - Swim in a film of external water to archegonia
  33. Ferns
    • - Phylum: Polypodiophyta
    • - Largest group of plant other than flowering plants
    • - Great diversity in form and habitat
    • - Warm, moist, tropical regions
  34. Life Cycle of Fern
    Dominant sporophyte produces windblown spores, when spore germinates the gametophyte (water dependent) develops.
  35. Lycophytes
    • - aka Club Mosses
    • - Among 1st land plants to have vascular tissue
    • - Common in moist woodlands in temperate climates (ground pines)
    • - Also in tropics and subtropics
  36. Seed Vascular Plants
    • - Most plentiful in biosphere today
    •       - Seeds contain sporophyte embryo and stored food which allows an embryo to survive long periods of dormacy
    •        - Seeds germinate under favorable conditions
    • - Heterosporous: two types of spores and produce male (produced by pollen grain) and female (develops in ovule) gametophytes
    • -Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  37. Gymnosperm
    • - "Gymno" = Greek for naked 
    • - Most are cone-bearing 
    •       - Ovules located on surface of cone scales
    •           - Ovules not completely enclosed by diploid tissue
    •           - Later become seeds
    • - 4 groups: conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes
  38. Pollination
    Deposition of pollen on a female gametophyte.
  39. Pollen Tube
    Path followed by sperm to reach ovule
  40. Conifers
    • - Phylum: Pinophyta
    • - Evergreens; best known gymnosperms
    • - Oldest and largest trees on Earth
    • - Adapted to cold, dry weather
    • - Dominant sporophyte produces 2 kinds of cones:
    •         - Pollen Cones (male) & seed cones (female)
  41. Ginkgoes
    • - Phylum: Ginkgophyta 
    • - Maidenhair Tree = only surviving species
    • - Females produce fleshy seeds that give off a foul odor
    • - Resistant to pollination
  42. Angiosperms
    • - Phylum: Magnoilophyta
    • - Flowering plants
    • - Very large and successful group 
    •        - 240,000 known species
    • - Live in all types of habitats 
    • - Large size range (microscopic-100 meters)
    • - Seeds develop from an ovule within an ovary, which becomes the fruit
    •        - Covered seeds
    • - Co-evolved with insects
  43. Pollinator
    Animal that carries pollen to another flower.
  44. Receptacle
    • - Tip of stalk that bears flower
    •       - Also bears sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
  45. Sepals (caylx)
    - Modified leaves that protect bud
  46. Petals (corolla)
    - Modified leaves, may be colorful to attract pollinators
  47. Stamen
    • - Male reproductive structure
    •       - Anther: pollen production
    •       - Filament: stalk
  48. Carpel (pistil)
    • - Female reproductive structures
    •      - Stigma: pollen receptor
    •      - Style: elevates stigma
    •      - Ovary: ovule production and containment
  49. Life Cycle of Flowering Plants
    • - Dependent on flower which produces both pollen and seeds 
    • - Pollination can be wind or pollinator
  50. The Fruit
    - Final product of a flower, aids in the dispersal of seeds
  51. Microbiology
    Study of microbes.
  52. Microbes
    • - aka Microorganisms
    • - Bacteria, archea, protists, fungi, viruses, viriods, prions
    • - Most require a microscope to be seen
    • - Are everywhere 
    • - Many cause human disease
    • - Others provide important benefits
  53. Discovery of Microbial World
    • - Late 1600s: 
    •       - "Animalcules": microscopic life forms in water
    •       - Spontaneous generation
    • - Late 1800s: 
    •       - Louis Pasteur
    •            - Used microbes to discredit the theory of spontaneous generation in 1859
    •            - Virus caused rabies
  54. Origin of Microbial Life
    Single common ancestor (3.5-4 billion years ago).
  55. Bacteria
    • - Most common prokaryote on Earth
    •       - 9,000 species identified, estimated to be 10s of millions unnamed species
    • - Found everywhere
    • - 3 shapes:
    •       - Rod (bacilli), Spherical (cocci), Curved (spirillium)
  56. Bacteria Structre
    • - Capsule (not present in all bacteria)
    • - Cell Wall: helps determine different types of bacteria
    • - Plasma Membrane 
    • - Plasma
    • - Single circular chromosome (DNA) located in nuceloid (RNA) region 
    • - Plasmids: accessory rings of DNA that carry genes
    • - Ribosomes
    • - Storage granules
  57. Classification of Bacteria
    Based on size and structure
  58. Gram Stain Method
    • - Used to classify bacteria based on differences in cell wall
    • - Most widely used
    • - Result (positive or negative) is used to select antibiotics
    • - Gram Positive: Thick cell wall (thick layer of peptidoglycan)
    • - Gram Negative: Thin or lacking cell wall (thin layer/lacking layer of peptidoglycan)
  59. Bacterial Endospore
    • - allows for survival in harsh conditions
    • - Thick-walled, dehydrated structure
  60. Binary Fission
    • - Asexual reproduction in bacteria
    • - Replication & division = 2 new daughter cells
    •       - Daughter cells are clones (exact copy)
    • - Duration: 20 min - A day or more
  61. Conjugation
    Donor cell passes DNA to recipient cell via sex pillus.
  62. Transformation
    Bacterium takes up DNA from environment released by dead bacteria.
  63. Transduction
    Viruses carry bacterial DNA from cell to cell.
  64. Hetertrophic
    • - Require an outside source of organic compound
    • - Aerobic: use oxygen
    • - Anaerobic: use sulfate or nitrate
  65. Chemoautotrophs
    • - Reduce carbon dioxide to organic compound 
    • - Uses electrons
  66. Photosynthetic
    • - Use solar energy to produce food
    • - ex: Cynobacteria
  67. Cynobacteria
    • - Have chlorophyll and other pigments
    • - 3.8 billion years ago
    • - Most oxygen of Earths atmosphere
  68. E. Coli
    • - Bacterial disease
    • - Many non-harmful strains live in our large intestines
    • - E. Coli O157:H7 generates toxins that damage intestines lining
  69. Streptococcus Infections
    • - Cause more disease than any other bacteria 
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae: pneumonia, meningitis, middle ear infections
    • -  Streptococcus mutans: contributes to dental caries
    • Streptococcus pyogens: causes the most diseases (ex: strep throat)
  70. Staphylococcus aureus
    • - about 20% of people are carriers
    • - Mostly skin infections
  71. MRSA
    • - Staph strain resistant to methicillin
    • - Can be deadly
  72. Tuberculosis (TB)
    • - A leading cause of death worldwide due to infectious disease
    • - Very slow growing bacteria
  73. Antibiotics
    • - Inhibit reproduction of bacteria by interfering with unique metabolic pathways
    • - Work in 2 ways:
    •       - inhibit protein synthesis
    •       - inhibit cell wall biosynthesis
  74. Viruses (obligate parasites)
    • - Acellular structures
    • - Require a living cell to reproduce
    • - Use host cells replication machinery
  75. Prions
    • - Simpler than viruses 
    • - Proteins molecules that cause other proteins to become prions
    • - Neurodegenerative diseases
  76. Viral Infections
    • - Once in body, can reproduce and the person will have it in their body for the rest of their life
    • - Even if asymptomatic, they are still infected
  77. Viral Size and Structure
    • - Smaller than bacteria
    • - Shapes: helix, sphere, polyhedron, and more complex forms
    • - 2 main components:
    •       - Capsid (outer portion comprised of protein) 
    •               - May be surrounding a lipid envelope
    •               - May have spikes for attachment
    •       - Nucleic Acid Core (RNA and DNA)
    •                - Both may be single or double stranded
  78. Viral Reproduction
    • - Infect almost every type of organism on Earth
    • - Each virus is specific to a certain host

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