Biology 30s - Digestive Systenm

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KaZuma_t3
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268156
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Biology 30s - Digestive Systenm
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2014-03-27 09:31:51
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Digestive system
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digestive system
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  1. explain the difference between physical and chemical digestion
    • Physical digestion:
    • food is broken down into smaller pieces physically
    • Chemical digestion:
    • break down of large molecules into smaller subunits by acid or enzyme
  2. an example of where physical digestion occurs and how
    • occurs in the mouth
    • when food is chewed
  3. an example of where chemical digestion occurs and how
    • occurs in the mouth
    • amylase breaks down starch into glucose
  4. where does the chemical digestion of carbohydrates begin
    in the mouth
  5. what enzyme starts the chemical digestion of starch (both names)
    starch or ptyalin
  6. what is the function of the hard palate
    • form speech sounds
    • allow food to be chewed while breathing
  7. what is the function of the soft palate
    closes off the nasal passage when swallowing
  8. what does pop go up your nose when you drink and laugh
    • your airway is open when you laugh
    • your airway closes when you swallow by uvula and epiglottis
    • both don't have enough time to close
    • air from lungs pushes pop up the nasal cavity
  9. what is the function of the epiglottis
    prevents food and liquids from entering the larynx and lungs
  10. what happens when food goes "down the wrong tube"
    • food went down the trachea
    • epiglottis didn't close properly
  11. another word for chewing
    mastication
  12. what is the moist, mushy ball produced at the end of chewing and is swallowed called
    bolus
  13. what connects the pharynx to the stomach
    esophagus
  14. what is a series of muscular contractions that helps the movement of substances called
    peristalsis
  15. what is dentin used for
    gives the tooth its shape
  16. what is pulp used for
    contains blood vessels and nerves
  17. what is enamel used for
    • covers dentin
    • aids in chewing
  18. what is the pariodontal ligament/ cementum used for
    anchors the tooth to the jaw
  19. what joins the uvula in the mouth
    soft palate
  20. name all the structures food will go through starting from the mouth and ending with the anus (10)
    • mouth 
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum
    • anus
  21. what are the names of the salivary glands (3)
    • parotid gland
    • sublingual gland
    • submandibular gland
  22. what do the salivary glands produce
    saliva
  23. does chemical digestion of proteins and fats occur in the mouth
    no
  24. what does the physical digestion of of proteins in the mouth release
    polypeptides
  25. what does physical digestion of fats in the mouth release
    fat globules
  26. name the parts of the esophagus (5)
    • lumen
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • smooth muscle
    • - circular muscle
    • - longitudinal muscle
  27. why do birds need gravity to swallow
    • birds don't have circular or longitudinal muscles
    • can't use peristalsis
  28. what causes heartburn
    • gastric juice moves up the esophagus
    • burns the inside lining of the esophagus
  29. what happens when you vomit
    food that is being digested in the stomach goes back up the esophagus by reverse peristalsis then exits the body through the mouth
  30. what are the parts of the stomach (6)
    • cardiac sphincter
    • cardia
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
    • pyloric sphincter
  31. what are the folds in the lining of the stomach called
    rugae
  32. what do rugae do
    • increases stomach capacity
    • stretches in order to eat large, infrequent meals
  33. what happens if someone did not have rugae, would digestion increase, and why (3)
    • stomach wouldn't increase its capacity
    • rate of digestion would decrease
    • less food would come in contact with the stomach lining
  34. what two substances does the stomach secrete
    • gastrin
    • mucus
  35. what are the components of gastric juice (5)
    • hydrochloric acid
    • pepsinogen
    • pepsin
    • renin
    • lipase
  36. what enzyme is pepsinogen converted into and at what pH
    • pepsin
    • 1-3
  37. does chemical digestion of proteins occur in the stomach
    yes
  38. what is the function of pepsin
    breaks down proteins into smaller amino acid chains
  39. what is the thick, acidic liquid produced by the stomach
    chyme
  40. how is an ulcer formed
    an area of tissue layers become eroded
  41. parts of the small intestine (4)
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
    • ileocaecal valve
  42. what structures in the small intestine increase absorption of nutrients
    • villi
    • by brushed border epithelial cells
  43. what is the function of lacteal
    absorbs chylomicrons
  44. what is the function of bile
    • emulsifying agent
    • breaks up fats and oil droplets into microscopic particles
    • breaks down worn out RBC into bilirubin
  45. where is bile produced
    liver
  46. what are the components of pancreatic juice
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • pancreatic amylase/amylopsin
    • proteases
    • lipase
  47. why does pancreatic juice have sodium bicarbonate in it
    • neutralizes acid in chyme
    • makes intestine alkaline for digestive enzymes
  48. why is amylopsin important in pancreatic juice
    it hydrolyses the rest of starch
  49. what carbohydrates do enzymes in intestinal juice break down
    • maltose
    • sucrose
    • lactose
  50. does intestinal juice or pancreatic juice contain the enzyme that break down fats
    pancreatic juice
  51. lipase breaks down fats into which substances
    • fatty acids
    • glycerol
  52. parts of the large intestine (9)
    • caecum
    • appendix
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anal sphincter
    • anus
  53. what are the two major functions of the large intestine
    • eliminate waste (feces)
    • re-absorption of water
  54. name the carbohydrate (1) and protein (3) that cannot be digested
    • carbohydrate:
    • - cellulose
    • protein:
    • - tendons
    • - ligaments
    • - fascia
  55. what do undigested carbohydrates and proteins eventually form
    feces
  56. the bacteria in the large intestine synthesize vitamin b12, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin ___
    vitamin k
  57. a person consumed large amounts of antibiotics and could be easily bruised, what is this condition
    vitamin k defiency
  58. explain the negative feedback mechanism used to control digestion
    • increased acid slows down the release of gastrin
    • digestion of proteins uses up acid
    • release of gastrin is no longer inhibited
  59. what is the function of gastrin
    stimulates the secretion of HCl
  60. what is the function of secretin
    stimulates the release of pancreatic juice and the production of bile
  61. what is the function of cholecystokinin
    stimulates the release of bile from the gall bladder
  62. what is the function of gastric inhibitory peptide
    inhibits acid production and peristalsis in the stomach
  63. what causes diarrhea
    not enough water re-absorption
  64. what causes constipation
    too much water re-absorbed
  65. what causes appendicitis (3)
    • a bacteria infection
    • food is trapped in the appendix and grow
    • appendix may burst and cause infection
  66. what causes hemorrhoids
    swlling of veins around anus
    • 1. salivary glands
    • 2. parotid gland
    • 3. submandibular gland
    • 4. sublingual gland
    • 5. oral cavity
    • 6. uvula
    • 7. tongue
    • 8. esophagus
    • 9. pancreas
    • 10. pancreatic duct
    • 11. stomach
    • 12. liver
    • 13. gall bladder
    • 14. duodenum
    • 15. common bile duct
    • 16. colon
    • 17. transverse colon
    • 18. ascending colon
    • 19. descending colon
    • 20. jejunum and ileum
    • 21. cecum
    • 22. appendix
    • 23. rectum
    • 24. anus
    • 25. epiglottis
    • 26. pharynx
    • 1. cardiac sphincter
    • 2. cardia
    • 3. fundus
    • 4. body
    • 5. pylorus
    • 6. pyloric sphincter
  67. how many incisors
    8
  68. how many cuspids are there
    4
  69. how many premolars are there
    8
  70. how many molars are there
    12
  71. what is the function of incisors
    biting
  72. what is the function of cuspids
    tearing
  73. what is the function of premolars
    grinding
  74. what is the function of molars
    grinding
  75. what is the function of the liver
    produces bile
  76. what is the function of the gall bladder
    • to store bile for the liver
    • deliver it to the small intestine
  77. what is the function of the common bile duct
    allows bile to move from the gall bladder to the small intestine
  78. what is the function of the small intestine
    absorbs sugars, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids
  79. what is the function of the pacreatic duct
    • joins the pancreas to the small intestine
    • supplies pancreatic juice which aids in digestion
  80. what is the function of the pancreas
    makes pancreatic juice
  81. what is the function of the stomach
    • chemically and physically digest food
    • temporary storage of food
  82. what is the pathway from the liver to the gall small intestine (6)
    liver > common hepatic duct > gall bladder > common cystic duct > common bile duct > duodenum
  83. how long is the duodenum
    25cm
  84. how long is the jejunum
    2m
  85. how long is the ileum
    3.7m

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