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two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
a small social group where members share personal and lasting relationships
a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
group leadership that focuses on the group's well being
the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
a social group toward which a member feels a sense of competition or opposition
a social group with two members
a social group with three members
a web of weak social ties
a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
rationalization of society?
Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
an organizational model rationally designed to person tasks efficiently
the factors outside an organization that affect its operation
focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
the tendency bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
the rule of many by the few
the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
what are the two types of social groups?
- primary group
- secondary group
what are the different types of leadership?
- instrumental leadership
- expressive leadership
- authoritarian leadership
- democratic leadership
- laissez-faire leadership
take charge style that demands obedience
includes everyone in decision making
lets the group function mostly on its own
being "well connected" in network is a valuable type of _______ _________.
__________ are relational webs that link people with little common identity and limited interaction.
pay people for their efforts ex businesses or government agencies
have goals people consider worthwhile ex voluntary associations such as the PTA
are organizations people are forced to join ex prisons and mental hospitals
all formal organizations operate in an _________ ____________.
formal organizations are influenced by:
- political and economic trends
- current events
- population patterns
- other organizations
6 defining characteristics of bureaucracy:
- hierarchy of offices
- rules and regulations
- technical competence
- formal, written communications
what are some problems of bureaucracy?
- bureaucratic alienation
- bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism
- bureaucratic inertia
the rise of postindustrial economy has create two very different types of work:
- high skilled and creative work
- low skilled service work
examples of highly skilled and creative work?
designers, consultants, programmers and executives
examples of low skilled service work?
associated with "mcdonaldization" of society based on efficiency, uniformity, and control...... fast food restaurants and telemarketing
________'s research showed that many are willing to compromise judgement in order to avoid being different.
__________'s research on obedience suggests that people are likely to follow directions from "legitimate authority figures", even when it means inflicting harm on another person
___________'s research on groupthink showed the tendency to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue.
a social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions
_______ ________ influences intergroup contact.
what are the differences between formal organizations in japan and in the united states?
- hiring and advancement
- lifetime security
- holistic involvement
- broad-based training
- collective decision making
the four basic principles of mcdonaldization?
- uniformity and predictability
- control through automation
"_________ ____________" have become more productive than ever.
the __________ _________ has created many highly skilled jobs.