Sociology chapter 5

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  1. social group?
    two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
  2. primary group?
    a small social group where members share personal and lasting relationships
  3. secondary group?
    a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
  4. instrumental leadership?
    group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
  5. expressive leadership?
    group leadership that focuses on the group's well being
  6. groupthink?
    the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
  7. reference group?
    a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
  8. in-group?
    a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
  9. out-group?
    a social group toward which a member feels a sense of competition or opposition
  10. dyad?
    a social group with two members
  11. triad?
    a social group with three members
  12. network?
    a web of weak social ties
  13. formal organization?
    a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
  14. tradition?
    values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
  15. rationality?
    a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
  16. rationalization of society?
    Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
  17. bureaucracy?
    an organizational model rationally designed to person tasks efficiently
  18. organizational environment?
    the factors outside an organization that affect its operation
  19. bureaucratic ritualism?
    focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
  20. bureaucratic inertia?
    the tendency bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
  21. oligarchy?
    the rule of many by the few
  22. scientific management?
    the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
  23. what are the two types of social groups?
    • primary group
    • secondary group
  24. what are the different types of leadership?
    • instrumental leadership
    • expressive leadership
    • authoritarian leadership
    • democratic leadership
    • laissez-faire leadership
  25. authoritarian leadership?
    take charge style that demands obedience
  26. democratic leadership?
    includes everyone in decision making
  27. laissez-faire leadership?
    lets the group function mostly on its own
  28. being "well connected" in network is a valuable type of _______ _________.
    social capital
  29. __________ are relational webs that link people with little common identity and limited interaction.
  30. utilitarian organizations?
    pay people for their efforts ex businesses or government agencies
  31. normative organizations?
    have goals people consider worthwhile ex voluntary associations such as the PTA
  32. coercive organizations?
    are organizations people are forced to join ex prisons and mental hospitals
  33. all formal organizations operate in an _________  ____________.
    organizational environment
  34. formal organizations are influenced by:
    • technology 
    • political and economic trends 
    • current events
    • population patterns 
    • other organizations
  35. 6 defining characteristics of bureaucracy:
    • specialization
    • hierarchy of offices 
    • rules and regulations
    • technical competence 
    • impersonality 
    • formal, written communications
  36. what are some problems of bureaucracy?
    • bureaucratic alienation
    • bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism
    • bureaucratic inertia
  37. the rise of postindustrial economy has create two very different types of work:
    • high skilled and creative work
    • low skilled service work
  38. examples of highly skilled and creative work?
    designers, consultants, programmers and executives
  39. examples of low skilled service work?
    associated with "mcdonaldization" of society based on efficiency, uniformity, and control......  fast food restaurants and telemarketing
  40. ________'s research showed that many are willing to compromise judgement in order to avoid being different.
  41. __________'s research on obedience suggests that people are likely to follow directions from "legitimate authority figures", even when it means inflicting harm on another person
  42. ___________'s research on groupthink showed the tendency to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue.
    E. Janis
  43. reference group?
    a social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions
  44. _______ ________ influences intergroup contact.
    social diversity
  45. what are the differences between formal organizations in japan and in the united states?
    • hiring and advancement
    • lifetime security
    • holistic involvement
    • broad-based training
    • collective decision making
  46. the four basic principles of mcdonaldization?
    • efficiency
    • standardization 
    • uniformity and predictability 
    • control through automation
  47. "_________ ____________" have become more productive than ever.
    intelligent organizations
  48. the __________ _________ has created many highly skilled jobs.
    postindustrial organizations
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Sociology chapter 5
Sociology Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations
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