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What is sex?
one's biological sex (male or female) and is genetically determined
What is gender?
traits and abilities associated with males and females
What are gender stereotypes?
generally agreed upon ways of thinking about men and women and define what is masculine and feminine
What is gender bias?
the tendency to value men and masculine traits over women and feminine traits
What is hostile sexism?
openly regards women as inferior to men and assigns them to traditional and subordinate roles, considers them sexual objects.
What is benevolent sexism?
regards women as people that should be idolized and cared for. still subordinate to men but not blatently/openly
What is the gender pay gap?
providing a lower pay rate for women compared to men
What are the gender stereotypes associated with men?
men act (strength and agency)
What are the gender stereotypes associated with women?
women relate (sociability and nurturance)
How are gender biases communicated?
coloring books and cereal box character depictions for children (cooking and sewing all women) females seen as less competent and motivated than men in work place (women seen as subordinates to men)
Intellectual gender differences?
- Men seen as better with numbers (more logical and better and math and science)
- Women seen as having higher verbal/language abilities
Psychological gender differences?
- Women (more empathic and helpful)
- Men (more aggressive and physically expressive)
- Women (easily influenced and susceptible to persuasive appeals and claims)
What are the gender differences in social interactions?
- gender differences emerge during interactions with people (stronger gender beliefs, more guide of social interaction with members of the opposite sex)
- men and women are similar in traits and abilities but only through society do their abilities differ through role, interest, and occupational guidings
Family influences on gender differences?
- parents, grandparents, and siblings reinforce the typical/appropriate gender behavior
- gender-inappropriate behavior is disapproved by authority figures
School influences on gender differences?
- segregation of the sexes and gender behaviors
- men more physically competitive than women
- gender segregation found in academic class types
Media influences on gender differences?
- men more independent, powerful, intelligent, and courageous
- women more romantically available
types of self-construals?
- independent construals (how you see yourself separate from others: strong, bold, eccentric)
- interdependent construals (how you are in relation to others/what you have to offer: mother, spouse, friend, etc.)