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What is classism?
negative stereotypes, feelings, and behavior toward poor people or people who are perceived to be economically impoverished
What is moral exclusion?
excluding, dehumanizing, and punishing people who are perceived to be indifferent or threatening to the empowered group's beliefs and values
What is homosexism?
stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination directed at people because of their homosexual orientation
What is sexual prejudice?
stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination based on one's sexual identity or behavior
What is gaydar?
people identify and categorize gays based on physical or perceptual cues, or at least they believe they can
What is erotophobia?
fear and disgust with erotic activity (looking at pornography, engaging in oral or anal sex)
What is intrinsic religiousness?
internalizing and living out the precepts of one's faith, as typically occurs in people whose faith is important to them
What is extrinsic religiousness?
pragmatic approach to religion; extrinsically religious people use religion for social or personal goals
What is fundamentalism?
religious beliefs that are based on a literal reading of scriptures and are held with certainty and rigidity
What is minority stress?
chronic experience of being stereotyped (disliked, feared, judged) and socially alienated (excluded from social institutions)
What is conversion therapy?
therapeutic efforts to turning gay people into heterosexuals
How does the american dream relate to poverty?
the hopes of being able to start from nothing and, through hard work and determination, make something of themselves
poor people stereotype content?
- personal attributions of not working hard enough (greater belief among white people, conservative political value holders, and protestant work ethic affirmers)
- poor people lack motivation and responsibility to work (depressed and embarrassed)
definition of poverty?
not being able to afford the basic necessities of life and being below the poverty line
what are the negative/positive stereotypes of poor?
- irresponsibility: insincere, lazy, and stupid
- crude: harsh, incompetent, unfeminine, untidy
positive (women more than men): friendly, nice, loving
Who are welfare mothers?
women who receive government assistance and stereotyped as young, black, never married lazy women who cheat the system by having children to increase government benefits
What is reserve capacity?
ability to buffer the effects of stress on one's physical and mental well-being (resources available to deal with life stressors: money, time, social support), leaves poor people more vulnerable to illness
How does health relate to poverty?
- Greater chances of mental health issues (depression)
- Greater risk of heart disease, colds, and cancer
What are the contents of gay stereotypes?
- heterosexuals' attitudes are more negative toward gays than lesbians
- based on the perception that both gays and lesbians engage in unnatural and immoral sexual behavior
- Belief that being gay or lesbian was a choice and can be altered/changed
- Belief that gays are more inclined to be pedophiles (child rape) than lesbians
- HINKs (high income, no children) gay and lesbian
What are the subtypes of homosexuals?
- cross-dresser/leather/biker (makeup wearing and flamboyant)
- effeminate (dramatic and soft-spoken)
- artistic/straight-acting/masculine (competent but cold)
What are the beliefs about gays/lesbians?
- gays are perceived to be less masculine than heterosexual men and lesbians, lesbians perceived as being nearly as masculine as heterosexual men
- homosexism perceived to be controllable and changeable
What does the research say about gay stereotypes?
Those who hold gay stereotypes look at gay and lesbian couples more negatively than those who do not hold those stereotypes
How are gays and lesbians discriminated?
- gay and lesbian applicants for jobs were spoken to less by a potential employer than a straight applicant (social distancing, tension, and hostility result)
- homosexuals barred from legal marriage
What violence to gays and lesbians experience?
abuse and harassment (physically threatened, threatened with weapons, having belongings stolen, target of gay slurs and homophobic speech)