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The inhabitants of North America prior to European contact, includes many diverse groups of First Nations and Inuit Peoples.
A "term that came into common usage in the 1970's to replace the word 'Indian,' which many people found offensive. Among its uses, the term 'First Nations Peoples' refers to the Indian peoples in Canada, both Status and Non-Status. Many Indian peoples have also adopted the term 'First Nation' to replace the word 'band' in the name of their community".
"An Aboriginal people in northern Canada who live above the tree line in Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Northern Quebec and Labrador. The word means 'people' in the Inuit language - Inuktitut. The singular of Inuit is Inuk".
Originating from a place; these people are the original people of a country.
A group of languages that likely evolved from a common language.
Variations of a language used by groups of speakers who are often regionally or socially based. They might differ in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
Knowledge that is passed from one generation to the next by way of the spoken word.
A formal agreement between sovereign nations; an agreement between specific groups of First Nations and the federal government that clarifies Aboriginal rights to land resources. They are written to have the government recognize its responsibilities toward Aboriginal peoples in the areas of social, educational, and economical concerns
A set of values, beliefs, and assumptions about the world and how it works.
Emphasizing the interdependence of parts of a whole; a belief that the whole is more important than any single part.
Group agreement obtained through a process of dialogue and discussion.
To bring back something that was taken out of a country.
Discuss two examples that demonstrate the relationship between the environment and traditional First Nations' culture. (4)
- Northwest Coast (1st Example)
- - First Nations who lived in the Northwest Coast acquired their food from the nearby ocean.
- - They used large dugout boats, which carry many people and were made of wood, as their mode of transportation.
- Great Plains (2nd Example)
- - First Nations living in the Great Plains relied on bison as their primary food source. - They required a more mobile lifestyle in order to use the resources from a larger territory.
- - Travelled mostly by canoe, or by foot, using dogs to haul their supplies.
Identify the five sources of evidences used to explain the origin of the First Peoples. (5)
- oral tradition
What makes up a culture's oral tradition? (3)
- - A culture's oral tradition is made up of a collection of prayers, stories, and songs.
- - It helps express the community's history customs, beliefs, and values.
Explain the "Land Bridge Theory" of the origin of First Peoples in North America. Describe a problem with this theory. (3)
- - A theory that suggests that people from Asia migrated to the Americas by crossing a submerged landmass that was above water during the last Ice Age.
- - Scientists estimated that this migration happened between 25,000 and 12,000 years ago.
- - A problem with this theory is that it is not supported conclusively by archaeological sites. An example is an archaeological site in Monte Verde, Chile.
Identify other theories of origin. (5)
- People from Asia, Europe, Australia, or Siberia might have crossed the ocean to the Americas.
- People could face come to the Americas by crossing the Bering Strait by boat.
- People might have landed on various points along the coastlines.
- Ocean travellers moved from island to island across the Pacific.
- People migrated to the Americas from western Europe during the Ice Age, travelling along the southern edge of the Atlantic ice cap.
Explain the purposes of the Genographic Project. Why is the Genographic Project controversial among Aboriginal peoples? (4)
- Purposes for this is to find historical migration patterns by collecting and analysing DNA samples from hundreds of thousands of people.
- This is controversial among Aboriginal peoples because it appears to threaten the validity of their creation stories and may disrupt land claim agreements.
Identify three common influences on an individual's worldview. (3)
- Religion and Spirituality
- Life experiences
Although each community has its own unique spiritual traditions and ceremonies, your text identifies several common characteristics. Identify three of these. (3)
- The interconnectedness of the universe.
- The value placed on balance and harmony with nature.
- Everything has a spirit, including plants, animals, rocks, rivers, etc.
Explain the role of "Caretakes of the Land" in the traditional worldviews of First Peoples in North America. (2)
- Communities saw themselves as caretakers of the land in a give-and-take relationship.
- The resources of the land were not to be exploited or abused because they were gifts from the Creator.
Explain the role of "Language" in the traditional worldviews of First Peoples in North America. (2)
- Most First Peoples' languages were verb-based. Verb-based languages reflect how the world is described and experienced as full of motion, energy, and change.
- this focuses on connections and relationships rather than differences.
Explain the role of "Values" in the traditional worldviews of First Peoples in North America. (2)
First Peoples saw co-operation, autonomy, sharing, and diversity as important values.
Explain the role of "Oral Tradition" in the traditional worldviews of First Peoples in North America. (2)
- Stories were used to preserve a community's oral heritage.
- they were also told to entertain, educate, preserve cultural ideas and traditions, and teach moral values.
Define a patrilineal clan system. (2)
- When a person inherits their father's clan membership.
- Daughters joined their husband's clan when they marry.
Define a matrilineal clan system.
- When a person inherits their mother's clan membership.
- Sons joined their wife's clan when they marry.
Explain the basic relationship between a community's size and the availability of resources. Provide an example. (3)
- A community's size usually depended on the availability of resources. Social groups had to be large enough that the people could take care of the basic needs which are shelter, food, and safety.
- However, a community's size couldn't grow so large that it depleted their territory of its resources.
- An example is if a community grew too large that they overhunted and overfished.
Summarize tradition education. (4)
- Young people learnt what was expected of them and how they can fit into a society.They were mentored and taught by the whole community.
- They were taught their community's history, spiritual ideals, and practical skills.
- In some cultures, young people could learn through dreaming or visioning.
- A person's education was holistic, and was accomplished by storytelling.
Summarize traditional justice and conflict resolution. (4)
- In traditional First Nations and Inuit communities, rules were rarely broken.
- In case of conflict, each person presented their perspective on the issue and each person was encouraged to see the other's point of view.
- Offenders were encouraged to make amends to those they hurt. Elders also reminded the offender of the community's expectations.
- In extreme cases, offenders would be isolated from the community or constantly watcher by community members.
Explain the consensus model of governance. (2)
- Decisions were made through group agreement. People had the opportunity to give their viewpoints.
- Discussion would continue until the decision could be supported by all community members.
How was community leadership flexible in traditional communities? Provide an example. (2)
- Leadership depended on the circumstances and would fall to the person best suited to the situation.
- An example is if a person was a good hunter, that person led the hunt.
discuss the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. Include its location, its members, its foundation, and how decisions were made in Grand Council. (5)
- The Haudenosaunee Confederacy is an alliance between 5 Haudenosaunee nations, later 6.
- These nations were located along a 180 km stretch of the southern shores of the Great Lakes.
- It was founded on the "Great Law of Peace of the People of the Longhouse" which was a treaty that included 117 articles governing the relationship between these nations.
- Decisions were made by 50 chiefs representing the nations of the confederacy. Each chief had one vote and decisions were made unanimously and had to respect all views.
Explain what the Two Row Wampum Treaty was and why it is significant. (3)
- The metaphor "two vessels each possessing its own integrity, travelling the river of time together" represents the two culture groups as equals and respectful of the other's "autonomy, freedom, and powers".
- It identifies that the carious First Nations are sovereign equals to Britain or Canada.