neurobio 912 ch 7 of Bear's book: the structure of the nervous system part 1 (spinal cord brain ste
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what separates the cerebral hemispheres in the brain?
the sigittal fissure
what bodily functions is the brain stem responsible for?
vital functions such as breathing, consciousness, and the control of body temp.
what is the difference between the dorsal roots and ventral roots of the spinal cord?
the dorsal root contains axons bringing info. into the spinal cord. the ventral root contains axons carrying information away from the spinal cord.
somatic sensory axons do what?
they collect information from the skin, muscles, and joints
somatic sensory axons enter the spinal cord via...
the dorsal roots
how many pairs of cranial nerves are there
what are the layers that cover the CNS collectively called?
what are the three parts of the meninges
the dura mater, the arachnoid membrane, and the pia mater
what is the dura?
the dura is a tough, inelastic bag that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
how are the three meninges layers arranged?
the outermost covering is the dura mater. beneath the dura mater is the arachnoid membrane. the pia mater is a thin membrane that adheres closely to the surface of the brain
describe the arachnoid membrane
the arachnoid membrane has an appearance and a consistency resembling a spider web.
describe the pia mater
the pia is a thin membrane that adheres closely to the surface of the brain. Along the pia run many blood vessels that ultimately dive into the substance of the underlying brain.
what is in the subarachnoid space?
the pia is seperated from the arachnoid by a fluid filled space. This subarachnoid space is filled with salty clear liquid called cerebrospinal fluid.
how is CSF produced?
CSF is produced by a special tissue called the choroid plexus, in the ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres.
what are ventricles?
CSF-filled caverns and canals inside the brain
explain the flow of CSF in the nervous system
CSF flows from the paired ventricles of the cerebrum to a series of connected, unpaired cavities at the core of the brain stem. CSF exits the ventricular system and enters the subarachnoid space by way of small openings, or apertures, located near where the cerebellum ataches to the brain stem. In the subarachnoid space, CSF is absorbed by the blood vessels at special structures called arachnoid villi.
if the normal flow of CSF is disrupted, what can occur?
the cell bodies of cortical neurons are always arranged how?
in layers, or sheets, that lie parallel to the surface of the brain
describe the layer of neurons closest to the surface of the cortex
the layer of neurons closest to the surface is separated from the pia mater by a zone that lacks neurons. it is called layer I
what are the three ways in which the cerebral cortex is distinguished from the rest of the brain?
first, the call bodies of cortical neurons are always arranged in layers, or sheets, that usually lie parallel to the surface of the brain. second, the layer of neurons closest to the surface of the cortex is separated from the pia mater by a zone that lacks neurons, called layer I. Third, at least one cell layer contains pyramidal cells that emit large dendrites, called apical dendrites, called apical dendrites, that extend up to layer I, where they form multiple branches.
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