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__% if diabetes occurs in low- and middle- income countries.
when you eat, your body breaks down food into glucose. what is glucose?
type of sugar that is your body's main source of energy
As blood glucose rises, the body sends a signal to the pancreas, which releases?
what is insulin?
hormone produced by pancreas which plays a role in regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism
how does insulin allow glucose to be used right away by cells?
acting as a key, insulin binds to cell wall (insulin receptor) unlocking the cell so glucose can pass into it. There, most of the glucose is used for energy right away.
when does the pancreas release insulin?
as your blood glucose rises (after a meal)
define insulin deficiency.
your pancreas may not produce enough insulin
define insulin resistance.(2)
- cells don't use insulin properly
- insulin can't fully "unlock" the cells to allow glucose to enter
what are the 4 cardinal symptoms of diabetes mellitus?
- unexplained weight loss
extreme hunger and excessive food consumption
History of diabetes: what does diabetes literally mean?
"a passer through; a siphon"
diabetes was used by ancient Greek physicians with the intended meaning of?
" extensive discharge of urine"
what is the meaning of mellitus?
meaning mellite, sweetened with honey
what is glycosuria?
when it was noticed that the urine of a diabetic patient had a sweet taste
define diabetes mellitus.
a disease state of persistent inappropriate excess blood glucose caused by the inability of endogenous insulin to adequately mediate glucose uptake for the target cells that require it
what is the term for high blood sugar?
diabetes is caused by the combination of what 3 things?
- lifestyle factors
what are the 2 reasons for inadequate insulin action?
- lack of insulin production by the B-cells if the pancreas (insulin insufficiency)
- reduced, down regulated or dysregulated insulin receptor signaling (insulin resistance)
depending on underlying etiology factors causing hyperglycemia may include what 4 things?
- an absolute insulin deficiency
- reduction in insulin secretion
- decreased glucose utilization
- increased glucose production
what is hyperinsulinism? what does in result in?
- excessive insulin secretion
- results in hyperglycemia, disorientation, unconsciousness
describe the shape of the pancreas and name the 2 types of functions.
- triangular gland behind the stomach
- exocrine function
- endocrine function
what is the exocrine function?
secretion of digestive enzymes though acinar cells
what is the endocrine function?
synthesis, storage, and release of 2 hormones: insulin and glucagon
in the endocrine function of the pancreas, what contain the endocrine cells?
pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
which cells of the endocrine cells in the the pancreas produce insulin and glucogon?
- Alpha cells: produce glucagon (hyperglycemic hormone)
- Beta cells: produce insulin (hypoglycemic hormone)
Describe the steps of how the pancreas deals with high blood glucose levels in the body. (5)
high blood glucose--> beta cells--> produce insulin (stimulates glycogen formation in liver)--> glycogen enters cells--> blood glucose lowered
Describe the steps of how the pancreas deals with low blood glucose levels in the body.(5)
low blood glucose--> alpha cells--> produce glucagon (stimulates glycogen breakdown)--> liver releases glucose from glycogen--> blood glucose raised
The main insulin action on cells involve?
promotion of glucose uptake into target cells by increasing number of Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) proteins in target cell membranes
what 3 further enzymatic activity include insulin action on cells?
- catalyze oxidation of glucose for energy production in muscle cells and storage in fat cells
- polymerize glucose to form glycogen (liver and muscle cells)
- convert glucose to fat (particularly in adipose tissue)
Name the 2 functions of glucagon in the liver.
synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and non-carbohydrates
define glycogenolysis. (2)
- breakdown of glycogen to glucose
- release of glucose to the blood
what are the 4 effects of insulin?
- lowers blood glucose level
- enhances membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells
- inhibits gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
- induces glycogenogenesis (synthesis of glycogen from glucose)