Whooping Cough PP
Card Set Information
Whooping Cough PP
-A Gram negative coccobacilli
-Disease AKA Pertussis
-DPaT vaccine last 10-12 years
-Many adults may develop a mild case, some cases often serious
-Incubation period 7-10 days
Bordetella Pertussis - Pathogenesis
-B.pertussis interferes with the action of the ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea.
-B. pertussis survives in phagocytes.
-Pertussis is mainly a pediatric disease reported in children 5 years and younger.
-Mild cases are common.
-There is a persistant cough and may be misdiagnosed as bronchitis.
Serious Pertussis Cases
=Pneumonia, convulsions, bacteremia
-Brain inflammation (encephalopathy)
-Possible death in children due to cyanosis
-Severe coughing can compromise respiration and/or cause vomiting.
-Individuals may be more susceptible to secondary infections such as TB.
-Note that a cough which lasts more than 2 weeks may be pertussis and the person is contagious during the coughing stage. -If the case is self limiting, the cough will cease in 3 months.
-Weight loss may occur due to the excessive coughing and vomiting
-Species – influenzae
-Gram negative pleomorphic bacilli
-Normal flora of the nasopharynx
-Specific infections include meningitis, otitis media, otitis interna, epiglottis, infantile arthritis, pharyngitis
: No Flu
-1/3 children die, 1/3 suffer brain damage
-Cone filled with herbs, spices & dried flowers
Tularemia (AKA Rabbit Fever)
-Gram negative coccobacilli
-Hosts include mammals, birds, fish, and blood-sucking ticks and insects
-Most common is US are rabbits, muskrats and ticks
-No human to human spread
-Bite of an infected tick or contact with an infected animal
-Infected animal urine or saliva
-Consuming infected meat not properly cooked (rabbit or deer)
-Drinking contaminated water
-Inhaling bacteria in aerosols
-Penetrates unbroken shin
-Ulcers at the site of contact
-Fever and chills
-Malaise and fatigue
-Swollen lymph nodes
-AKA Legionnaire’s Disease
-Gram negative polymorphic bacilli
-An epidemic pneumonia affecting 2000 American Legion members at a convention in Philadelphia in 1976.(34,29 deaths).
-Found growing in the air-conditioning vents at the Hotel (condensation)
-Humans acquire the disease by inhaling the organism from aerosols such as showers, vaporizers, spa, whirlpools, hot tubs, air conditioning systems, cooling towers and grocery store misters
-Clostridia and Bacteriodes Characteristics
-A. All discharges have a foul odor.
-B. The toxins produce a lesion of necrosis.
-C. A bubbling effect with gas production.
Tetanus (AKA lockjaw) DPaT
-Gram positive terminal spore forming bacilli
-Found in dust, soil and GI tracts of animals and humans
-Its vegetative cells are sensitive to oxygen
Pathogenesis for Tetanus
-Spores must enter a wound, especially wounds contaminated by soil or feces.
-When C. tetani cells in the body die, a potent neurotoxin is produced.
-Neurons phagocytize the toxin.
-The toxin works its way to the inhibitory neurons and prevents muscle relaxation.
Symptoms of Tetanus
-Begins 3 days to 3 weeks after infection exposure (spores germinate)
-First sign is a headache followed by spasms of the jaw.
-Sweating, drooling, grouchiness, heart beat irregularities and constant back spasms
-Bones may break; respiratory failure; 50% of patients die
-Infection may be food-borne, infant and wound
-Gram positive spore forming bacilli. Common in soil and water.
Pathogenesis of Botulism
-Botulism toxins act by binding irreversibly to neuronal cytoplasmic membranes, thereby preventing the fusion of Ach vesicles to the membrane and the release of Ach into the synapse.
-The neurotoxins prevent muscle contraction.
-Improperly canned food
-Honey fed to children and infants
-Contaminated soil and water
-Ingestion of spores, which then germinate and colonize their GI tract.
-Infant GI tract does not have the proper benign bacteria to compete with C. botulinum for nutrients and space
-Lethargy, mild paralysis and SIDS may result.
-Begins 4 to more days following the contamination of a wound by spores.
-Unhealed naval of an infant, IV drug users and nasal cocaine users (spores enter the nose)
: baby powder, laxatives, comet, ajax, powered sugar, etc.
-Consumption of the toxin from contaminated home canned foods or preserved fish
-Food may not appear or smell spoiled.
-Blurred and double vision
-Difficulty breathing and swallowing
-Paralysis similar to stroke (diaphragm)
Treatment for Botulism
-Boil canned foods for 15 minutes (kills bacteria and inactivated the toxin)
-Repeated washing of the intestinal tract
Other uses of Botulism
-Botox is a weakened form of the toxin
-Scientists consider Botulism toxins the deadliest of all toxins.
-30 grams (1 oz) of the pure toxin would kill all persons in the US.
-The toxin blocks the release of Ach and muscles are unable to contract.
-Gram positive spore forming bacilli
-Produces 11 toxins that damage RBCs, WBCs, muscle connective tissue
-Vascular permeability is also increased
C. perfringes transmission
-Food poisoning: food contaminated with feces and soil
: spores entering a wound
-Surgical incision, a puncture, a gunshot wound, crushing trauma, or a compund fracture
-Abdominal pain and watery diarrhea
-No fever, nausea or vomiting
-Myonecrosis (death of muscle and connective tissue)
-Shock, kidney failure and death may result
C. diff. diarrhea
-Spore forming bacilli
-An inhabitant of the intestinal tract
-Occurs only when antibiotic therapy alters the normal intestinal flora, allowing overgrowth of toxin producing C. difficile
C. diff. continued
-Normal intestinal flora inhibit C.difficile multiplication
-Antibiotics destroy intestinal flora and C. diff. will multiply.
-C. difficile infections cause diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and may lead to fatal colitis.
C. diff. continued
-Immunosuppressed patients, prolonged hospital recovery ,young children and infants are at high risk for C. diff. diarrhea
-C. diff. releases damaging toxins
-C. diff. causes ½ of all nosocomial related infections