Chapter 16 Gastrointestinal and Urologic Emergencies

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Chapter 16 Gastrointestinal and Urologic Emergencies
2014-03-29 17:24:29
Gastrointestinal Urologic Emergencies

Chapter 16 Gastrointestinal and Urologic Emergencies
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  1. Distention of the abdomen is gauged by:
  2. A patient complains of heartburn, pain with swallowing, and feeling like an object is stuck in the throat.  What is the most likely cause?
  3. If a patient misses a dialysis treatment, weakness and ____ ____ can be the first in a series of conditions that can become progressively more serious.
    pulmonary edema
  4. True or false.  Peptic ulcer disease effects both men and women equally.
  5. True or false.  Patients with abdominal pain should be placed in a position of comfort, but should not be given oxygen unless they show signs of shock.
  6. Esophageal varices MOST commonly occur in patients who:
    A. have a history of esophagitis.
    B. drink a lot of alcohol.
    C. have weak immune systems.
    D. have severe diabetes.
    B. drink a lot of alcohol.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. A 59-year-old male presents with a sudden onset of severe lower back pain. He is conscious and alert, but very restless and diaphoretic.  Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbilicus.
    You should:
    A. administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport.
    B. place the patient in a sitting position and transport at once.
    C. request a paramedic unit to give the patient pain medication.
    D. vigorously palpate the abdomen to establish pain severity.
    A. administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. A 47-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain of 3 hours' duration. His abdomen is distended and guarded. Your MOST important consideration for this patient should be to:
    A. determine the exact location and cause of his pain.
    B. assess his blood pressure to determine perfusion adequacy.
    C. transport him in a supine position.
    D. be alert for signs and symptoms of shock.
    D. be alert for signs and symptoms of shock.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following organs lies in the retroperitoneal space?
    A. liver
    B. spleen
    C. gallbladder
    C. gallbladder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. During the focused physical exam, the first step listed to assess the abdomen is:
    A. palpate all four quadrants.
    B. determine if the patient has a history of acute abdomen.
    C. determine whether the abdomen is tender when palpated.
    D. explain to the patient what you are about to do.
    D. explain to the patient what you are about to do.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. When the waste product that is normally excreted into the urine remains in
    the blood, this can lead to which of the following conditions?
    A. uremia
    B. cystitis
    C. kidney stones
    D. all of the above
    A. uremia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In which condition does the junction between the esophagus and the stomach tear, causing severe bleeding and potentially death?
    A. diverticulitis
    B. Mallory-Weiss syndrome
    C. a hernia
    D. gastroenteritis
    B. Mallory-Weiss syndrome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. -The ____ is part of lymphatic system
    -Significant role in relation to red blood cells and immune system
    -Assists in filtration of blood
    -Aids in development of red blood cells
    -Serves as blood reservoir
    -Produces antibodies
  14. Normal adult forms __ to __ L of urine per day.
    • 1.5
    • 2
  15. The abdominal cavity is lined by a membrane called the ____.
  16. The ____ peritoneum lines the abdominal cavity.
  17. The ____ peritoneum covers the organs.
  18. The presence of foreign material (blood, pus, bile, pancreatic juice, amniotic fluid) can irritate the peritoneum, causing ____.
  19. -____ ____ refers to the sudden onset of abdominal pain
    -Often associated with severe, progressive problems requiring medical attention
    Acute abdomen
  20. Peritonitis (inflammation of peritoneum) typically causes ____.
  21. Paralysis of muscular contractions that normally propel material through the intestine.
  22. The stomach can only empty itself by vomiting (____).
  23. Also associated with loss of bodily fluid into abdominal cavity.
  24. -Inflammation of abnormal pockets at weak areas in the lining of colon
    -Left lower quadrant painc
    -Substantial elevation in temperature
  25. -____ peritoneum is supplied by the same nerves that supply the skin of the abdomen
    -Can perceive pain, touch, pressure, heat, cold
    -Can easily identify and localize a point of irritation
  26. -____ peritoneum is supplied by the autonomic nervous system
    -Nerves are far less able to localize sensation
    -Patients will not be able to describe exactly where the pain is (referred pain)
  27. Peptic ulcers affect men and women equally but occur more frequently in ____ population.
  28. -Described as burning, gnawing pain usually in the upper abdomen that subsides or diminishes after eating
    -Nausea, vomiting, belching, and heartburn are common symptoms
    -Some ____ heal without intervention
  29. Presents as a constant, severe pain in the right upper midabdominal region and may refer to the right upper back, flank, or shoulder.
  30. Caused by obstructing gallstone, alcohol abuse, or other diseases
  31. -Occurs when the amount of pressure within blood vessels surrounding the esophagus increases
    -When blood is blocked up in the portal vessels, vessels dilate, causing the capillary network of the esophagus to begin leaking
    Esophageal varices
  32. -Junction between esophagus and stomach tears
    -Causes severe bleeding and possibly death
    Primary risk factors are alcoholism and eating disorders
    Mallory-Weiss syndrome
  33. Infection combined with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting caused by bacterial or viral organisms.
  34. -Bulges in the colonic walls result from increased intestinal contractions
    -Fecal matter is caught in bulges, and bacteria form, causing inflammation and infection
  35. Also called urinary tract infection (UTI)
  36. When the kidneys fail, ____ results.  The waste product (urea) remains in the blood.
  37. -The aorta lies immediately behind the peritoneum
    -Weak areas can result in ____ ____ ____
    -Difficult to detect
    -A pulsating mass may be felt in the abdomen
    -Pain may be described as tearing
    abdominal aortic aneurysm
  38. ____, especially in the lower lungs, can cause ileus and abdominal pain.
  39. A ____ is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through a hole or opening into a body cavity where it does not belong.
  40. ____ hernias pose little risk and can be pushed back into the body cavity.
  41. ____ hernias cannot be pushed back in and are compressed by surrounding body tissue.
  42. ____ of an incarcerated hernia is a serious medical emergency.  Blood supply is compromised by the compressed surrounding tissue.
  43. Providing ____-____ oxygen often decreases nausea.