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  1. Clinton election stance
    pro-business democrat, wanted to end Republican domination in White House
  2. Clinton's health care policy
    • wanted universal health care plan
    • assigned his wife to lead this as an unelected official, members of Congress hated her
  3. Leonid Brezhnev
    Soviet leader who signed the SALT II agreements
  4. SALT II Treaty
    • signed with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev
    • limited the levels of lethal strategic weapons in the Soviet and American arsenals
    • Senate didn't pass this bc they were upset over the USSR's invasion of Afghanistan
  5. Gorbachev
    • chairman of Soviet communist party
    • created new revolutionary implications with glasnost and perestroika
    • required Soviet Union to shrink its military size and put more energy towards economy, Cold War ended
  6. Glasnost
    • part of Gorbachev's revolution in Soviet Union, meant openness
    • introduce free speech and some political liberty to Soviet society
  7. Perestroika
    • Gorbachev's revolutionary idea, meant restructuring 
    • help revive Soviet economy by using free-market practices of capitalist west
  8. Washington Summit
    meeting where Gorbachev announced the Soviet Union would stop their intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) targeted on Western Europe; banned all IN missiles from Europe
  9. Camp David Accords
    • president of Egypt Anwar Sadat and prime minister of Israel Begin were invited by Carter to this conference to bring peace
    • first treaty between an Arab nation and Israel, first recognition of latter by former
    • Israel agreed to withdraw from territory won in the 1967 war and Egypt promised to respect Israel's borders; both pledged to sign a formal peace treaty
  10. Anwar Sadat
    president of Egypt
  11. Menachem Begin
    prime minister of Israel
  12. causes of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
    • Saddam Hussein (Iraq's ruler) sent his armies to the oil rich desert in Kuwait
    • needed money after the war with Iran; wanted to take control over Persian Gulf region; wanted to dictate terms of oil supplies with other nations
  13. Helsinki Accords
    Ford signed this for more human rights
  14. Carter and energy
    • Carter's first priority was the energy crisis
    • wrote his own energy policy with stress on alternate energy sources
    • most comprehensive plan developed by a president, never passed bc too complex
  15. our reaction to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
    • UN Security Council condemned Saddam's invasion, demanded immediate and unconditional withdrawal of his troops
    • passed an embargo and told Saddam to leave Kuwait by a certain date
  16. Desert Shield and Desert Storm
    • successful military action by the U.S. and coalition of allied nations against Iraq and Hussein after invasion (Storm was a land invasion)
    • Saddam accepted a cease-fire, Kuwait was liberated, but they decided not to force Hussein from power
  17. peace process between Yasir Ararfat and Yitzak Rabin
    • peace in the Middle East was discussed at the White House between Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasir Arafat
    • agreed on self-rule for Palestinians within Israel
    • didn't work out because they hated each other and ended up dying early
  18. Sandra Day O'Connor
    one of the three conservatives appointed to the Supreme Court during Reagan's presidency; first woman to be a Supreme Court justice
  19. Clarence Thomas
    • Bush nominated him as a conservative African American jurist to the Supreme Court 
    • was against affirmative action and became the second African American to be on the Supreme Court 
    • press leak revealed that Anita Hill accused him of sexual harassment, but Senate Judiciary Committee found him not guilty
  20. Jerry Falwell
    • founded Moral Majority, was a part of the conservative evangelical Christians known as the religious right; was an evangelical minister from VA
    • preached with success against sexual permissiveness, abortion, feminism, and gay rights
  21. Bakke v. CA Board of Reagents
    • SC upheld Allan Bakke's claim that his application to medical school had been turned down bc of admissions program that favored minority applicants; ordered he had  to be admitted
    • declared that preference in admissions could not be given to members of any group on the basis of ethnic or racial identity alone, although racial factors may be considered to ensure student body is diverse
  22. Iran crisis 1979-80
    • mob of Anti-American Muslim militants invaded the U.S. Embassy in Iran and took occupants hostage
    • demanded the American authorities ship their exiled Shah back to Iran, who was in the U.S. for medical treatment
    • Carter refused to send him back so they stopped oil shipments to U.S. and our prices jumped
  23. Iran Hostage Crisis
    Soviets were against the Salt II Treaty, didn't want limitations of lethal strategic weapons in arsenals
  24. Iran-Contra Imbroglio
    • many American hostages were continuing to be captured by the Muslim extremist groups
    • we arranged to sell arms to the Iranians in return for the hostages, and the money was then used to help the contras (people fighting against Sandistas)
    • this violated a ban on military aid to Nicaraguan rebels and Reagan's vow to never negotiate with terrorists; made him look bad
  25. "Great American Values"
    • Reagan supporters reacted strongly to programs
    • thought affirmative action had done its job and was now causing issues
    • were against abortion, gay rights, porn, and feminism
  26. Moral Majority
    • led by Christian groups who were dedicated believers, concerned about culture and social issues rather than the economy
    • against abortion, porn, homosexuality, feminism, affirmative action
    • favored prayer in schools and tougher penalties for criminals 
    • leader was Jerry Falwell
  27. family values
    • described by the Republicans in 1992
    • included feminist movement, women's role changed, increase in divorce, tvs, baby boomers, women started working more in electrical and service
  28. what happened in Afghanistan and how did we help
    • Soviets invaded Afghanistan for their oil and installed a pro-Soviet government 
    • Carter put an embargo on grain and high tech machinery export to the USSR; boycotted the Olympic games is Moscow; called off the Salt II Treaty, and said that the U.S. would use any means necessary (including force) to protect the Persian Gulf against Soviet invasions
  29. why did President Bush authorize tax increases in 1990
    • economy was suffering; unemployment was high, federal budget deficit was increasing
    • broke his campaign promise that he wouldn't create new taxes 
    • in the next election Clinton called him untrustworthy and Bush lost re-election
  30. end of the Cold War effect on Russia
    communist oppression ended and its roots were taken out; this created lots of nationalism, and ethnic/racial hatred
  31. end of the Cold War effect on US economy
    • before, our rivalry with Soviet Union demanded high levels of military preparedness and strengthened our economy
    • then costs of weapons caught up to us and we closed many military bases, lots of closing and cancellations
    • we had to wean the economy off its dependence on defense spending
  32. Clinton and Somalia
    • Clinton dispatched American troops to keep the peace and reinforced the U.S. contingent when Somali rebels killed Americans
    • withdrew the troops without having accomplished the goal
    • no one intervened when there was ethnic violence in Rwanda; but sent troops when democratic Haitian president was killed
  33. Clinton affair
    Clinton had a sexual affair with the White House intern Monica Lewinsky, then lied about it under oath
  34. Kenneth Starr
    • Clinton was brought to this prosecutor after lying under oath about his affair
    • Starr presented the House with a report, and they found 11 possible grounds for impeachment
  35. Korean airline incident
    • Korean passenger airline inexplicably violated Soviet airspace and was shot by a Soviet interceptor; killed many civilians including Americans
    • USSR thought they were being spied on and that the U.S. was testing their military preparedness and trying to provoke a war; they broke off arms-control negotiations and boycotted the LA Olympic Games
  36. Gloria Steinem
    American feminist, journalist, and social/political activist who founded the Ms. magazine and co-founded the Women's Media Center, was the leader of the women's liberation movement in the late 60s and 70s
  37. Betty Friedan
    feminist author of "The Feminine Mystique" in 1960; sparked a new consciousness among suburban women that helped launch the second wave feminist movement
  38. Nixon and the China card
    • Nixon traveled to Russia (they wanted American foodstuffs)
    • Soviets were alarmed that we were taking to China and were anxious to make a deal with us
    • led to detente and relaxed tension
  39. Nixon's environmental efforts
    • created the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and the OSHA (Occupational Health and Safety Administration)
    • Rachel Carson published Silent Spring which was a form of muckraking that exposed the poisonous effects of pesticides
  40. Branch Davidians
    • a cult leader Koresh had established a Texas community based on militant conservative family values
    • FBI and ATB tried to control weapons and save the children by breaching the compound, but it blew up instead
  41. Nixon and new federalism
    • thought this would revive the economy
    • wanted less federal involvement and more state power (revenue sharing sent money back to states)
  42. Nixon and law and order
    • would benefit "silent majority" and limit riots and demonstrations
    • used the FBI, CIA, audits, Personal Enemies lists, VP denounced all opposition, called people snobs
  43. Nixon's southern strategy
    • forged an alliance of southern conservatives to ensure his reelction
    • slowed the desegregation of public schools in violation of Brown v. Board, desegregated them through force busing
    • appointed conservatives to SC 
    • opposed extension of Voting Rights Act of 65
  44. Henry Kissinger
    • Nixon formed his detente plan with this National Security Advisor and Secretary of State
    • plan called for lessening of tensions and easing the Cold War
  45. Nixon foreign policy triumphs
    made the first trip by a U.S. president to China, let the U.S. play the China card in negotiations
  46. stagflation
    • during Nixon's presidency, the stagnant economy and high inflation
    • result of huge increase in workers and deficits
  47. Yom Kippur War
    • Egypt attacked Israel, U.S. provided Israel with assistance
    • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) nations cut off oil shipments to U.S. bc of this
    • when they returned, prices went up and caused worse inflation and more unemployment
  48. Watergate scandal
    • burglars broke into the Democratic Party headquarters to bug party phones
    • Nixon refused to release tapes even when ordered by Supreme Court, they forced him
    • found an 18 minute gap and arranged for impeachment
    • Nixon resigned instead
  49. leader of the Watergate scandal, the reporters, other important people
    • leader was an ex CIA employee and member of the CREEP (committee to reelect the president) James McCord
    • reporters were Bernstein and Woodward
    • Butterfield's testimony revealed that Nixon was in the habit of taping meetings in his office
  50. Watergate scandal pardon
    Ford pardoned Nixon; felt the country needed to move on and Nixon didn't get a fair trial
  51. economy during Carter's presidency
    • high energy costs and rationing went into effect
    • prices rising with high inflation
  52. Reagan's economic plan
    • used the ideas of the neoconservatives
    • wanted free market capitalism free of government regulation, tough anti-soviet positions, traditional family and individual values, and less government intervention
  53. boll weevils
    people who abandoned their party and became southern conservative democrats
  54. Reagan's foreign policy
    hated the Soviet Union, thought we could only negotiate through position of strength so he built up the military
  55. IMF Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty
    Reagan and Gorbachev (SU) signed this; eliminated a class of nuclear weapons for the first time in history
  56. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)/Star Wars Program
    Reagan's proposed construction of an elaborate computer-controlled anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer space
  57. supply side economics/Reaganomics
    • Reagan and his advisors thought the combination of tax cuts and higher spending would boost production
    • creater greater sales and larger tax receipts
    • ended up causing a major recession
  58. Grenada
    • this was allied with Castro's Cuba; they built an airfield on this island that could potentially disrupt the shipping area
    • Reagan ordered an invasion of the island and overthrew the government
    • allies criticized the U.S. since Grenada was a Commonwealth nation and allied to the U.S.
  59. Sandistas
    • members of the leftist coalition of Soviets that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship and attempted to install a socialist economy
    • U.S. financed armed opposition by the Contras
  60. Iran Contra affair
    • Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran in hopes of freeing American hostages in Lebanon
    • money from the arms sales was used to aid the Contras (anti-communist insurgents) in Nicaragua, even tho Congress prohibited it
    • thought about impeaching Reagan since this was illegal but his presidential aides took the blame for it
  61. Margaret Thatcher
    • conservative prime minister of Britain
    • partnered with Reagan and set up economic liberalization and tried to check the powers of labor unions
  62. Jane Fonda
    anti-war activist against Vietnam and Iraq, worked for teen pregnancy prevention, supported Blank Panthers, co-founder of Women's Media Center
  63. Michael Dukakis
    MA governor who won Democratic nomination for president; lost to George H.W. Bush since people thought he was unsympathetic for not addressing ethical and economic issues
  64. Bush v. Gore
    made Bush win the election. Said the counts of presidential ballots were unfair because they used inconsistent evaluation standards and thus violated the equal protection clause.
  65. Christmas Bombings
    U.S. dropped the the heaviest and most destructive air raids of the entire war on North Vietnam, civilian casualties were high
  66. Fall of Saigon
    battle where North Vietnam captured capital of South Vietnam and named it Ho Chi Mihn City
  67. ABM Treaty
    treaty btwn the U.S. and USSR that would limit anti-ballistic missiles
  68. Salt I Treaty
    signed between US and USSR, limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the slowdown of the arms race
  69. Vietnamization
    Nixon's policy of withdrawing many US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time; gradually putting them back in power by making them take responsibility for fighting their own war with our money, weapons, training, and advice
  70. Six Day War
    short conflict between Egypt and her allies against Israel won by Israel; Israel captured large amounts of Arab territory
  71. Libya Bombings
    during Reagan's presidency, Libya tried to bomb Italy but the terrorist was stopped and a couple Americans were killed; US bombed Libya
Card Set:
2014-04-15 02:56:17

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