Art History II Exam 2

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mhirsh
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268311
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Art History II Exam 2
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2014-03-28 21:13:36
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  1. Early Flemish Renaissance
    • 1400 - 1500 
    • Only impacts 2D art (paintings)
    • Paintings become premier art form 
    • Flanders (Belgium, Holland and France) becomes involved w/ international trade and becomes economically successful
    • Art Patrons are still Christian merchants
    • Increase of portrait images
    • Important characteristic: disguised symbolismn
  2. Merode Altar Piece, Workshop of the Master of Flemalle, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500.

    • Triptych owned by Marode family
    • Made for middle-class families
    • Main subject = the annunciations
    • Far left = donors honored to watch.d
    • Far right = Joseph in woodshop
    • Center = Flemish scene
    • two books = new and old testaments 
    • Disguised symbolism - (polished kettle = Mary's womb), (towel on rack = traditional jewish prayer shawl) (joseph making mouse traps = jesus is devil's mouse trap
  3. Triptych
    A three-paneled, hinged altarpiece.
  4. Polyptych
    A hinged altarpiece with more than three panels.
  5. Diptych
    A hinged altarpiece with two panels.
  6. Disguised Symbolism
    An important characteristic of Flemish art, a technique where objects in a painting provide added meaning and significance.
  7. Oil Paint vs Egg Tempera
    Flemish Renaissance artists were the earliest practitioners of oil paint, especially Jan van Eyck.
  8. The Annunciation, Jan van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • Single-panel, probably part of a triptych, left-side panel.  
    • Mary is in a Chapel which is not logical because Christianity had not yet been established. 
    • Stained glass windows have Jesus 
    • 3 windows behind Mary 
    • You can see Gabriel's words to Mary's right ear, while white lilies. 
    • Oil painting.
  9. Ghent Altarpiece, Jan and Hubert(?) van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • Opened view: 
    • Polyptych, pronounced "kent"
    • Hubert probably did the framework 
    • Main subject = the adoration of the lamb (christ)
    • Created for the church in the city of Ghent 
    • St. John on the Right
    • Mary on the Left 
    • Adam and Eve on upper far left and right are remarkably naked and understand their nakedness --> through Jesus, one can find forgiveness from original sin 
    • Eve = Flemish ideal of beauty 
    • Figures are life-sized, which would not have previously happened in Western art since ancient Roman days
  10. Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, Jan van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance 

    • Portrait commission for Arnolfini in 1434.
    • Signed in center 
    • Arnolfini = Italian business man 
    • Witness needed for ceremony, so van Eyck is the witness 
    • Very fashionable for 15th century-high forehead and bloated stomach 
    • Bed chamber = St. Margaret, patron saint of childbirth 
    • Whisk broom and crystal beads = purity
    • Removed shoes = holy ground
    • dog = fidelity
    • Red turbaned man = van Eyck 
    • Fruits on chester drawer = citrus fruits, which were expensive imports that symbolize fertility
  11. Man in a Red Turban, Jan van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • October 1433
    • "Jan van Eyck made it"...
    • "As best as I could" in Flemish
  12. Deposition, Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500

    • Studied with Roger Campin 
    • Subject = Jesus after crucifixion and placed in tomb.
    • Mary (fainted) is being held up while Jesus is being brought down, paralleling each other.  
    • When Adam died, a tree was planted... the wood from that tree was used to crucify Jesus and he is being placed in Adam's tomb. 
    • Reducing space, putting viewer in the tomb.
  13. Portrait of a Lady, Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500

    • Portraits were sign of growing prosperity
    • Portrait could be his wife
    • in contrast to red turban piece, no eye contact and submissive gesture (clasped hands) 
    • Silk gauze head piece = incredible detail of how her head is put up
  14. St. Luke Drawing the Virgin and Child,Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • Well-organized, clear foreground, middle distance and background.
    • Using atmospheric perspective 
    • 3 divisions = columns 
    • St. Luke = known to be an artist. using silver point in his professional role to draw scene during breast-feeding (motherly role) 
    • Most likely a self-portrait of van der Weyden 
    • Important because of iconoclastic controversy 
    • St. Luke's drawings emerged and argument that religious imagery shouldn't be seen as idolatry.
    • No halo = humanity 
    • Middle distance = walled garden, symbolic of Mary's womb. Unknown figures.
  15. Atmospheric Perspective
    Important illusionistic device based on observation. Objects in the distance are less clear and colorful than objects in the foreground.
  16. Crucifixion with Mourning Virgin and St. John, Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • Unknown context. May have been doors for sculptural altarpiece. 
    • There is a connection between two panels of diptych.
    • 1450 was jubilee year, pope decreed if you are came to St. Peter's that your sins would be more easily absolved
  17. Portinari Altarpiece, Hugo van der Goes, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • Triptych 
    • Portinari family = Italian family 
    • Closed = The Annunciation
    • Sent to Florence and installed in hospital, 1st time artists in Florence saw oil paintings 
    • Disguised symbolism 
    • Bundle of wheat = Jesus' body 
    • Decorated with bunches of grapes = blood 
    • Flowers = iris (mary's sorrow), white blossoms, violets (humility)
    • Tympanum = relief of harp = david (king)
    • watchful ox = St. Luke, traditional animal of christianity
    • Distracted donkey = Judaism
    • Shepherds = welcome, prayer, gaping in awe
    • Distance = annunciation of shepherds.
  18. Garden of Earthly Delights, Hieronymous Bosch, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • Tryptich, 
    • Probably painted for private chapel, but it is unsure.
    • Continuous narrative from left to right
    • Left = Adam and Eve introduced by God
    • Center = Earth and it's population explosion 
    • Right = hell and the tortured souls
  19. Early Italian Renaissance
    • 1400 - 1495
    • Key city = Florence, Italy
    • Remarkable comeback after significant impact of the Black Death in Europe
  20. Sacrifice of Isaac, Brunelleschi, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • Competition panel for new set of Florentine Baptistry doors.
    • Artists had to work in quatrafoil with subject of Sacrifice of Isaac for old testament relief panels. 
    • Abraham and Isaac in dead center with angel holding Abraham's arm 
    • Ram who will later be slain is graphically literal 
    • Lost competition
  21. Sacrifice of Isaac, Ghiberti, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495 

    • Winner and signs contract to do another set of doors from 1403 - 1423 
    • More compositionally pleasing than Brunelleschi's piece and requires viewer to put a little more thought into it.
  22. The Four Crowned Martyrs, Nanni di Banco, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495 

    • Stone cutters and wood worker's guild 
    • 4 crowned martyrs during Roman times who refused to make a pagan idol and exemplified their Christian faith, yet put to death.
    • life-sized marble statues
    • Contrapposto
    • Orsanmichele
    • Contstructed as grain hall to store food and to prevent further or future shortcomings like in the Black Death days 
    • Later consecrated as a church 
    • Exterior has niches used by various guilds and as a public art project.
  23. St. George, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • Armorors had swordsmith guild
    • St. George slayed the dragon - relief - panels show key subjects of his life, slayed dragon with sword (good vs. evil).
  24. Feast of Herod, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • City of Siena wants new Baptismal font where baptismal holy water is held. 
    • Donatello learned bronze casting from Ghiberti
    • Herod killed brother, married wife, St. John spoke against the marriage.
    • Salimaid (step-daughter) wanted St. John's head on platter in order to "pay" for her dancing. 
    • 1st use of linear one-point perspective to give 3D effect (learned from Brunelleschi)
    • Orthogonal
  25. Orthogonal
    Lines that are perpendicular to the picture plane.
  26. Gates of Paradise, Ghiberti, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • East doors of Baptistry of San Giovanni
    • Scenes from Old Testament 
    • Creation --> Meeting of Solomon and Shiba 
    • Panel: younger jacob and Esau 
    • Classical architectural 
    • Ghiberti includes self-portraits in his doors.
  27. Mary Magdalen, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • After returning to Florence, he was commissioned for the San Giovanni Baptistry.
    • Mary Magdalen was one of Jesus' followers and a former prostitute 
    • Used white poplar wood that was painted
  28. David, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495 

    • Commissioned by private patrons. 
    • Standing on Goliath's head 
    • Cast bronze, 5' 2.5" 
    • Mentioned in inner courtyard in Medici family home, surrounded by potted lemon trees. 
    • Medici's were wealthy political rulers and merchants. 
    • Unprecedented first free-standing bronze sculpture made since the ancient past. 
    • Contrapposto - classical Greeks, nude.
    • Strong military imagery 
    • David becomes symbol of power in Florence, overcoming enemies (Milan) 
    • Goliath's helmet is associated with Milanese 
    • Feminine quality --> adolescent who has yet to become a man.
    • Strong homoerotic quality: stroking Goliath's beard and facial hair with his foot.

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