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define type 1 diabetes and what is its proper name.
- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
- pancreas no longer produces insulin (insulin insufficiency)
define type 2 diabetes and what is its proper name.
- non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
- low levels of insulin produced and secreted, but cells developed insulin resistance
unusually high levels of blood glucose occur when: (2)
- there's not enough insulin
- target cells do not adequately respond to insulin
In type 1 diabetes, why is the pancreas unable to produce insulin? why is it called "insulin dependent"? (2)
- autoimmune disorder in which the immune system (T cells) attack the beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulin
- destruction of beta cells mean absolute insulin deficiency and such can be called insulin dependent (insulin must be delivered by injection or pump)
what type of diabetes is most commonly found in childhood?
type 1 diabetes represents __________% of all diagnosed cases.
what main factor may be involved in triggering autoimmunity in diabetes (type 1)? what other factors have been found?
- environmental factors, particularly viral infections
- genetic associations and susceptibility genes
what are 5 manifestations of type 1 diabetes mellitus?
- extreme thirst
- frequent urination
- sudden vision change
- heavy, laboured breathing
- fruity, sweet odour on breath
in what year did the first person with diabetes receive insulin?
who discovered insulin?
Frederic Banting and John Macleod University of Toronto
In type 2 diabetes, cells are resistant to insulin. what is associated with this?
type 2 diabetes: form associated with a lifestyle of overeating, obesity, and inactivity
Type 2 diabetes represents _______% of all diagnosed cases.
what type of diabetes is common in people over 40?
what are the 2 primary pathogenic responses to type 2 diabetes?
- progressive decline in pancreatic islet function
- diminished tissue response to insulin
what are the type 2 diabetes environmental risk factors? (5)
- age > 45
- sex (more common in women)
- sedentary lifestyle (physical inactivity)
- dietary habits (overweight, obesity)
how is genetic susceptibility/predisposistion a risk factor for type 2 diabetes?
between 40-50 genetic variants have been discovered which increase the risk of type 2 diabetes
what is double diabetes?
- complication in differentiating type 1 from type 2 diabetes (also known as LADY or LADA, 1.5 diabetes)
- hybrid form of diabetes; present clinically as type 2 diabetes but auto-immunity against pancreatic B-cells also evident
what is gestational diabetes (GDM)? How does this occur?
- condition in which pregnant woman develops diabetes mellitus
- pregnancy increases the metabolic workload of the maternal pancreas and heightens both insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency
how is gestational diabetes caused?
when the placenta produces hormones that make the mother's cells more resistant to insulin and production of insulin insufficient
how is gestational diabetes resolved?
resolves after delivery of the baby and placenta
what is the symptoms of gestational diabetes?
women may experience no symptoms or some or all of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes
how is gestational diabetes diagnosed?
glucose challenge test, as part of routine prenatal care
what are the gestational diabetes risk factors? (5)
- having parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
- having gestational diabetes in previous pregnancy
- age over 25 years
- being overweight before pregnancy
- member of a racial or ethnic group with high prevalence for GDM (African Americas, Hispanic, American Indians)
what are the health consequences of gestational diabetes in mother and baby?
- mother: some women develop pre-eclampsia during pregnancy (high blood pressure + fluid retention); difficult delivery due to large babies
- baby: excessive growth during prenatal period; macrosomia (birth weight over 9 pounds)
what are some treatment strategies for gestational diabetes? (6)
- lifestyle changes: self-monitoring blood glucose levels, eating healthy diet, regular physical activity
- taking insulin
- taking anti-diabetic medication
- annual screening for diabetes after giving birth
other etiologic forms of diabetes are due to what 2 things?
- rare genetic defects of the B-cells causing altered insulin secretion
- disease of exocrine pancreas when majority of pancreatic islets have been destroyed
what is pre-diabetes?
you don't have diabetes yet but without lifestyle changes you will probably develop type 2 diabetes
what is IGT and IFG and how does it correlate to pre-diabetes?
- pre-diabetes is also referred to as IGT an IFG
- impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG): intermediate conditions between normality and diabetes
what is the health impact of diabetes?
diabetes increase the risk of developing a variety of co-morbid conditions (such as stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, blindness)