History 2

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  1. What were polis?
    • independent political and cultural units; city-states in ancient Greece 
    • originally referred only to citadel 
    • location determined by availability of farmland and natural fortress
    • usually placed well inland or far enough
    • from sea to avoid pirate attacks 
    • examples: Athens and Sparta
  2. What was the Age of Homer?
    • dark ages 
    • Epic poems: Iliad and Odyssey 
    • traditionally oral poetry, versed in rhythmic formulas to aid in memory 
    • Mycenaean Age 
    • heroes cremated 
    • kings were limited in ability in power, needed to consult with counsel of noblemen 
    • society was divided into classes; nobles, thetes, and slaves 
    • thetes; worked land, were landless laborers
    • schoolbook of Greeks
    • highest virtue was "arete", courage in the most general sense, and the excellence proper to a hero
  3. What was the hoplite phalanx? 
    • military strategy 
    • 8th century B.C.E, chief element in Greek warfare 
    • heavily armed infantryman, fought with a spear and large shield
    • arrayed close in order, to form a phalanx
    • usual hoplite battle was between the armies of two poleis quarreling over land 
    • rise created a bond between aristocrats and family farmers who fought side by side
  4. What were the Persian Wars?
    • Athens and Sparta had common enemy: Persia
    • 1st Persian War: win at Marathon (490)
    • 2nd Persian War: win at Thermopylae and Platea
    • Greeks thwart a takeover and continue to thrive 
  5. What was the battle of Marathon?
    • 490 B.C.E. Athenian victory, instilled them with confidence and pride in their polis
    • defeat would of destroyed Athenian freedom and lead to conquest of all mainland Greece
  6. What was the Delian League?
    • an alliance between Greeks of Asia Minor and other Greek cities on Aegean with the Athenians
    • swore themselves to a permanent alliance, vowed to free Greeks under Persian rule, to protect against a Persian return and obtain compensation from Persians by attacking their lands and taking booty 
    • members forced some states into league, prevented others from leaving 
  7. What was the Peloponnesian War?
    • victory doesn't lead to harmony in Greece
    • created the Delian League under Pericles
Card Set:
History 2
2014-03-29 17:02:14
World History Chap 3, 6,7-8
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