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13 year old child tied to a chair since 13 mos. old.
Result: poor language, not potty trained, no motor function.
When being institutionalized she developed relationships but then went to live with mom, didnt work out, so now is institutionalized as a an adult in California.
Harlow & Harlow
Raised baby monkeys in isolation.
- Results: Isolated monkeys for 3 months were fine in life.
- 6 or more months had issues like not playing well, no mating.
If mating was forced, they were poor parents.
Agents of Socialization
The people who socialize is.
Agents of socialization: Working class families
Want outward conformity. They care about how they are presented, how well dressed and how neat their children look
Agents of socialization: Upper class
Stress creative thinking among children
Agents of socialization: The difference?
Prep for jobs.
What to expect in poor neighborhoods
Higher pregnancies, high crime rate, high drop out rate
How many US citizens belong to a congregation?
70% of the people in the US belong to a congregation.
2/5 attend church each week.
What does daycare teach children?
What does school teach children?
Conformity, peer pressure, influence, quiet
People who share the same characteristics (but are not groups)
Groups that form individuals teaching ideals, morals, family and religion
Large, anonymous, formal groups.
Example: democratic party, YCCC staff.
Doing what everyone else is doing, often because of peer pressure.
Asche's group conformity experiment:
Even when we don't believe what the group is saying, we go along.
The line drawing experiment.
A group that you join by choice.
Voluntary (Normative) group
A group of volunteers/people with a mutual goal.
People at the top are often paid.
Ex: peace corps.
A group that you involuntarily join.
Ex: Prison/ Army in some countries
Bureaucracy: Hierarchy of office
Clear cut levels, one boss of others, of others
Bureaucracy: Division of labor
Each worker has a specilization, making them more prepared to do other jobs.
Bureaucracy: Written rules
Bureaucracy: Written communications and records
Forms that get passed from one person to the next.
Bureaucracy: Technical competance
Hiring for competence, not because of social ties
hIRING because people are family friends
Problems concerning Bureaucracy:
- Bureaucratic inertia
Mcdonalds follows organizational principals.
Who came up with Mcdonaldization
Maurice and Richard Mcdonalds in 1954 because they wanted fast service.
4 Mcdonalds Organizational principals
- Control through Machinery
How things are done quickly, through assembly lines, to produce cheap food very quickly.
Everything is as you'd expect it to be around the world.
Mcdonaldization: Uniformity and Predictability
All McD's are the same. Same uniforms, same recipes, decor
Mcdonaldization: Control through machinery
Idea that everything is done through machinery for consistency.
+ Examples of Deviant acts, both criminal and non
Any violation of norms.
Criminal: Kidnapping, murder
Non: Not yeilding to an ambulance, drinking while pregnant
How has deviant behavior changed over time?
Smoking used to be okay everywhere.
Form of deviance that's written into law.
- Varies across cultures.
- Ex: Islam gay is illegal.
When did the sexual Revolution occur?
In the 1970's.
What sparked the sexual revolution?
Women became more open to sexuality because birth control became available.
Emotionally and sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex
Emotionally and sexually attracted to people of the same sex
Emotionally and sexually attracted to both sexes
- Not interested in sex.
- Auto stimulating
- No masturbation
Why is homosexuality hard to define?
People lie, it's unacceptable in some cultures, and some people aren't out yet.
What percentage of the population is homosexual?
Public attitude toward homosexuality: who is most prejudice?
Society is much more accepting of homosexuals now. Acceptance is just below 50%.
Old people are most prejudice.
The position someone occupies in society. Can be good or bad
Involuntary status, inherited. Male or female, ethnicity, age
Earned Status. President, student, mother, teacher, criminal.
Combination of all of your statuses.
Mine: daughter, student, female, worker, culinarian.
Ways to show off (declare) your status.
Statuses that cut across all statuses.
Example: Queen, president, handicapped,
- Example: a 9 year old college student
- a 9 year old mother.
Each status has roles that they must uphold.
- When two or more of the roles conflict.
- Example: work and school collide.
Social construction of reality
The way we see things and the way we behave has to do with our prior experience. In a sense we invent it.
We make stuff up and decide who to discriminate against.
Ex: Dr. Seuss book
Society's view's on extramarital (out of the marriage) sex
- 77% believe it's wrong.
- Some are impartial
- But 2% believe it;s never wrong -- SWINGERS
Society's views on premarital sex (sex before marriage)
- 21% wrong (religion)
- The rest not wrong at all.
Sexual Orientation History
Willing exchange among adults of illegal goods and services.
ex: prostitution and drugs
White Collar Crime
Non-violent crimes, such as income evasion, ta fraud, embezzlement
A business organization that supplies illegal goods and services for profit
Paradigm (Functionalist views) on deviance
Structural Functionalist - Crime defines acceptable behavior. Crimes unite groups (gangs, police forces). And Crime promotes social change (rosa parks)
Conflict perspective - Things are unfair. Bottom people get unfair treatment
FBI Defined crimes:
Person, Property and Victimless
Person - Violent crimes, such as murder or rape
Property - Burglery, vehicle theft, larson
Victimless - Exchanging sex and goods
Crime statistics (age, gender, race, ethnicity)
15-24 year olds make up 14% of the pop, but do more crime than expected due to testosterone.
Race - White males are most likely to commit crimes
Crimes also differ based on culture and money