Chapter 32

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Chapter 32
2014-03-30 14:28:31

Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Trauma
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  1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Consists of the brain and the spinal cord
  2. Peripheral Nervous System
    Consists of nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord
  3. Voluntary Nervous System
    Influences the activity of voluntary (skeletal) muscles and movements throughout the body
  4. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Automatic and influences the activities of involuntary muscles and glands
    • The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are included in the autonomic nervous system
  5. Spinal Column
    AKA vertebral column; the principal support system of the body
  6. Vertebrae
    33 irregularly shaped bones that make up the spinal column.
  7. Disk
    • Fluid-filled pad of tough elastic cartilage between each two vertebrae.
    • Acts as a shock absorber
  8. Cervical Spine
    • The first seven vertebrae that form the neck
    • Most common cause of spinal cord injury
  9. Thoracic Spine
    The 12 vertebrae directly below the cervical vertebrae that compose the upper back
  10. Lumbar Spine
    The next five vertebrae that form the lower back
  11. Sacral Spine (sacrum)
    The next five vertebrae that are fused together and form the rigid posterior portion of the pelvis
  12. Coccyx (tailbone)
    The four fused vertebrae that form the lower end of the spine
  13. Spinal Cord
    • Composed of nervous tissue, exits the brain through an opening at the base of the skull.
    • The cord is surrounded by a sheath of protective membranes (meninges) and a cushioning layer of cerebrospinal fluid
  14. Motor Tracts
    Carry impulses down the spinal cord and out to the muscles
  15. Pain Tracts
    Carry impulses from pain receptors up the spinal cord to the brain
  16. Light Touch Tracts
    Carry light touch impulses from sensory receptors up the spinal cord to the brain
  17. Compression
    When the weight of the body is driven against the head
  18. Flexion
    When there is severe forward movements of the head in which the chin meets the chest, or when the torso is excessively curled forward
  19. Extension
    When there is severe backward movements of the head in which the neck is stretched, or when the torso is severely arched backward
  20. Rotation
    When there is lateral movement of the head or spine beyond its normal rotation
  21. Lateral Bending
    When the body or neck is bent severely from the side
  22. Distraction
    When the vertebrae and spinal cord are stretched and pulled apart
  23. Penetration
    When there is injury from gunshots, stabbings, or other types of penetrating trauma that involve the cranium or spinal column
  24. Complete Spinal Cord Injury
    Results when an area of the spinal cord has been completely transected (cut crossways) either physically or physiologically
  25. Spinal Shock
    A temporary concussion-like insult to the spinal cord that causes effect below the level of the injury
  26. Priapism
    Involuntary erection of the penis
  27. Neurogenic Hypotension
    Results from an injury to the spinal cord that interrupts nerve impulses to the arteries. When the arteries lose nervous impulses from the brain and spinal cord, they relax and dilate. This vasodilation causes a relative hypovolemia within the circulatory system causing hypotension
  28. Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury
    Occurs when the spinal cord is injured-- but not completely through all of the three major tracts (motor, light touch, pain tracts)
  29. Central Cord Syndrome
    The medial or middle portion of the spinal cord is injured, causing a dysfunction in the inner tracts that control upper extremity motor and sensory function
  30. Anterior Cord Syndrome
    Results from injury of the sensory and motor tracts located in the anterior portion of the cord
  31. Brown-Sequard Syndrome
    Loss of different functions on opposite sides of the body from injury to one side of the spinal cord