115 final

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115 final
2014-03-30 22:22:04

115 final chapter 23
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  1. what is an oncogene/ what do they do
    genes promoting cell division
  2. what are cell cycles and what happens in each cycle?
    • G1- cell prepares for division
    • S1- doubles DNA
    • G2-makes important proteins that will be used in cell division and in normal physiologic function after cell division is complete
    • M- Mitosis, the single cell splits apart into 2 cells
  3. characteristics of normal cells
    • specific morphology- normal cell has distinct and recognizable shape
    • small nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio-nucleus does not take up much space
    • differential function: every normal cell has at least one special function it performs to contribute to whole-body-function
    • tight adherence: NC make fibronectin which allows cells to bind tightly together
    • Nonmigratory: NC do not wander throughout the body
    • Orderly and well regulated: divide for only 2 reasons, and only when the conditions are right
  4. Most common form for cancer staging
    TNM classification
  5. 3 specific factors that influence cancer development
    • exposure to carcinogens
    • genetic predisposition
    • immune function
    • C-changes in bowel or bladder habits
    • A- A sore that does not heal
    • U- Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • T- Thickening or lump in the tissue
    • I- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
    • O- Obvious change in wart or mole
    • N- Nagging cough or hoarseness
  7. why is aging the single most important risk factor for cancer?
    • decreased immune protection
    • external exposure to carcinogens accumulate
  8. Primary prevention
    • avoidance of known or potential carcinogens
    • removal of at risk tissues
    • Chemoprevention
  9. Secondary Prevention
    regular screening
  10. oncogenes are very important during ____
    early embryonic stages
  11. Oncogenes potential cancer producing gene. contributes to the transformation of normal cells and malignant cells when INAPPROPRIATELY activated. These genes are naturally occurring and assist in cell mitosis.
  12. Proto-oncogene
    a gene with the capacity to undergo transformation if it sustains insult(injury)
  13. Hypertrophy
    tissue growth the cells grow in size
  14. hyperplasia
    tissue growth by the increase in the number of cells
  15. neuplasia
    • any new or continued cell growth not needed for normal development or replacement of dead or damaged tissue
    • it is always abnormal even if it causes no harm
  16. Euploid
    normal chromosomes each cell has 23 pairs
  17. Aeuploid
    • abnormal amount of chromosomes
    • they are common in cancer cells as they become more malignant, chromosomes are lost and gained or broken so they may have more or less than 23 pairs
  18. Cyclins are produced by ____
  19. normal cell division is a balance between ____ and ____
    • cyclins
    • ¬†suppressor gene products
  20. cyclins are
    proteins that promote cells to enter and complete cell division
  21. cancer cells do not make ______, which causes ____
    • fibronectin
    • which allows the cells to break off and metastasize
  22. what is fibronectin
    protein produced by normal cell that protrude from the membrane, allowing the cell to bind closely and tightly together
  23. Malignant cells show _________, which makes them look less and less like the parent cell
    anaplastic morphology

    in the late stages of cancer it could be impossible to determine the point of origin because of this
  24. suppressor gene
    Proteins that limit cell division

    they regulate the amount of cyclins present and ensure that cell division occurs only when it is needed
  25. normal cells have
    • limited cell division
    • they undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death)
    • they show specific morphology
    • small nucleus cytoplastic ratio
    • they preform specific differentiated functions
    • they adhere tightly together
    • nonmigratory
    • they grow in orderly and well regulated manor
    • cell division stops when the cells are full and touching each other, they will start dividing again if there is damage
    • eupoid (normal chromosomes)
  26. G1 Phase
    the cell is preparing for division by taking in more nutrition, making energy and growing extra membrane
  27. S1 Phase
    The cell doubles its DNA through DNA synthesis
  28. G2 Phase
    the cell makes important proteins that will be used in during cell division and in normal physiologic function after cell division is complete
  29. M phase
    (Actual Mitosis) when the cell splits into 2 cells
  30. G0 Phase
    • reproducting resting state
    • the cell is actually carrying out its function
  31. what are carcinogens
    substance that change the activity of a cell's genes so that the cell becomes a cancer cell
  32. carcinogens can be
    • chemical
    • physical agents
    • viruses
  33. the steps of malignant transformation
    • initiation
    • promotion
    • progression
    • metastasis
  34. the original tissue is know as the primary tumor.
    if a patient has colon cancer and they discover there are spots on the liver, does the patient know have liver cancer too
    • no, it is still considered colon cancer it has just spread to the liver
    • it is a secondary tumor
  35. Steps of metastasis
    • malignant transformation- normal cells undergo malignant transformation
    • Tumor vascularization- cancer cells secrete enzymes that make blood vessel for the tumor
    • blood vessel penetration- cancer cells have broken from main tumor, get in blood vessel and travel through the body
    • Arrest and invasion-clump up in the blood vessel walls and invade new tissue areas
  36. cancer are divided into 2 major categories ____&____
    • Solid
    • Hematologic
  37. solid tumor arises from
    • specific tissues
    • ex (breast cancer and lung cancer)
  38. Hematologic cancers arise from
    blood cell forming tissues

    (lymphomas and leukemias)
  39. TNM Classification

    what are the T classifications?
    • Tx-primary tumor cannot be assessed
    • T0-no evidence of primary tumor
    • Tis-carcinoma in situ
    • T1,2,3,4-increasing size and or local extent of the primary tumor
  40. TNM

    what are the N classifications?
    • Nx-regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
    • No-No regional lymph node metastasis
    • N1,2,3-increasing involvement of regional lymph nodes
  41. TNM

    what are the M classifications?
    • Mx-presence of distant metastasis cannot be assessed
    • M0-No distant metastasis
    • M1-Distant metastasis
  42. external factors causing cancer