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three classes of grading eggs?
grading is based on?
- outside and inside quality, not size
- does not effect on nutritional status
when light comes up through the egg and you can see inside of it
what is looked for during candling?
look for developing embryos
whole egg is at 140 degrees F for 3.5 minutes
where must egg dish temps be kept?
below 41F or above 135F
- do not consume raw eggs
- salmonella could be on shells
- refrigerate promptly
egg storage is best below?
70 degrees F
nutrients found in eggs?
- fats soluble vitamins
what part of the egg provides fat?
what part of the egg provides protein?
egg white or albumen
where is the most cholesterol located in the egg?
dry heat methods of cooking eggs?
- baking(shirred eggs, quiche)
- sautéing (scrambled eggs, omelets, frittatas)
- pan-frying (sunny side up)
moist heat methods of cooking eggs?
- in shell cooking, simmering (hard boiled eggs)
what functions do eggs provide in cooking/baking?
- they add texture
diff between fats and oils?
- fats are solid at room temp
- oils are liquid at room temp
a type of fat that remains liquid at room tem p
the temperature at which a fat begins to break down and smoke
the temperature at which a fat ignites and small flames appear
on the surface of the fat
a chemical change caused by exposure to air, light or heat (when food spoils)
methods in which oils are extracted?
- cold pressing
- expeller pressing
- chemical solvent
fats and oils are composed of?
- 100% fat
- either animal or plant
- 9 kcal per gram
oils with saturated fats?
palm and coconut oil
an elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated
the chemical name for common refined sugar, it is a disaccharide composed of one molecule each of glucose and fructose
proteins do this, solidify when heated
sugars do this when heated, adding flavor and causing the product to darken
the residual heat contained in the hot baking pan and within the product itself continue the baking process at the product cools
the process whereby starch molecules in a batter or dough lose moisture after baking, the result is baked goods that are dry or stale
a living organism that feeds on carbs present in the starches and sugars in bread dough
the process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide aka the time it refers to the time that yeast dough is left to rise
large tubular holes in muffins an cakes, a defect caused by improper mixing
purpose of flour in baking?
- prevents foods from sticking together
characteristics of flour in baking?
- corn, rice, wheat
what are the basic ingredients in baking?
purpose of sugar in baking?
- add flavor, color
- help leavening process through creaming or foaming
- shorten gluten strands
- help extend shelf life
list the purpose of butter in baking?
- help leavening process
- extend shelf life
- shorten gluten strands
steps in baking process?
- gases form and are trapped in gluten
- starches gelatinize
- proteins coagulate
- fat melts
- water evaporates and produces steam
- sugar carmelizes
- carryover baking
gases that leaven baked goods?
three different quick bread mixing techniques?
biscuit mix technique fat and results?
- solid (chilled)
- flaky dough
muffin mix technique fat and result?
- liquid (oil)
- soft, tender, cakelike
creaming mix technique fat and result?
- rich, tender, cakelike
leavning agents for quick bread?
- baking soda
- baking powder
- baking ammonia
leavening agents for yeast bread?
- active dry yeast
- sourdough starter
- or the chemical kinds like baking powder or soda
define yeast and discuss what happens in the fermentation process
yeast feeds on carbs present in the starches and sugars. During fermentation, it releases CO2 which leavens the bread
what are the factors that control fermentation?
steps in making yeast bread?
- mixing and kneading
- fermenting the dough
- punching down the dough
- portioning out
- cooling and storing
mixing and kneading?
worked with hands or by machine to combine the ingredients
fermenting the dough?
bulk fermentation and proofing, letting it rise
punching down the dough/
reactivates the yeast cells, encouraging more yeast activity
final rise of fermentation before baking
what promotes staling?
what is the best temperature range for yeast activity?
different types of flour?
- all purpose
- whole wheat
- high gluten
protein content of cake flour?
protein content of pastry flour?
protein content of all purpose flour?
in the middle, 9.5-12
protein content of bread flour/
mid high, 11.5-14
protein content of whole wheat flour?
higher than all but 1, 13-14
protein content of high gluten flour?
vigorously agitating foods to incorporate air or develop
mixing two or more ingredients until evenly distributed
vigorously combining fat and sugar while incorporating air
incorporating solid fat into dry ingredients only until lumps of the desired size remain
very gently incorporating ingredients such as whipped cream or whipped eggs with dry ingredients, a batter or cream
working a dough to develop gluten
passing one or more dry ingredients through a wire mesh to remove lumps and combine and aerate
gently mixing ingredients by hand until evenly distributed and blended
beating vigorously to incorporate air