Ch7 NTD303

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  1. are the most versatile and metabolically active cells in the body
    liver cells
  2. release of water, energy and carbon dioxide aka the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in the living cells
  3. how body obtains and uses energy from food
    energy metabolism
  4. cell type where chemical reactions occur in the body?
    liver cells
  5. amino acids together to make a protein
  6. glycogen break down to glucose
  7. requires energy, build up
  8. releases energy, breaking down
  9. some of the energy released during the breakdown of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids is captured in the?
    high energy compound ATP
  10. contains 3 phosphate groups, which are very easy to split off for energy to power living cells
  11. when the body uses ATP to transfer the energy released during catabolic reactions to power anabolic reactions
    coupled reactions
  12. provides energy for all cell activities
  13. facilitators of metabolic reactions
  14. coenzymes?
    • organic
    • associate with enzymes
  15. with a ____ an enzyme cannot function
  16. what is broken down in carb digestion?
  17. whats broken down in fat digestion?
    glycerol and fatty acids
  18. what is broken down in protein digestion
    amino acids
  19. catabolism is made up of
    • carbon
    • nitrogen
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen
  20. what happens when glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids break down?
    two new compounds emerge
  21. 2 new compounds?
    • pyruvate
    • acetyl CoA
  22. pyruvate ?
    • 3 carbon structure
    • can be used to make glucose
  23. acetyl CoA?
    2 carbon structure and can NOT be used to make glucose
  24. ____ can get converted to make glucose
  25. fatty acids are converted to ____ and therefore cannot make glucose
    acetyl CoA
  26. amino acids and glycerol can be converted to pyruvate and therefore can produce ____
  27. ex of anaerobic exercise?
    • short distance sprinting
    • weight lifting
    • 50 free swimming
    • tennis
    • soccer
  28. ex of aerobic exercise?
    • cross country
    • walking
    • elliptical
    • long distance swimming
  29. are carbs anaerobic, aerobic or both?
  30. are proteins anaerobic, aerobic or both?
  31. are fats anaerobic, aerobic or both?
  32. what type of energy is used first? 2nd?
    • carbs
    • fat
    • protein
  33. quick energy needs of pyruvate are known as?
  34. when pyruvate is anaerobic what occurs?
    pyruvate to lactate
  35. when pyruvate is aerobic what occurs?
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA
  36. slower energy needs over longer periods of time
  37. Only __% of the triglyceride can be used to make ___ (glycerol head). The other __% can not make __(fatty acid tails)
    • 5
    • glucose
    • 95
    • glucose
  38. cant be converted back to glucose
  39. can be converted back to glucose through pyruvate
  40. metabolism favors/
    fat formation
  41. dietary fat to body fat is the most ?
    direct and efficient conversion
  42. ____ and ___ have other roles to fulfill before conversion to body fat
    carbohydrate and protein
  43. when people choose not to eat
  44. food is not available and a person has not choice but to not eat
  45. what happens during the fasting state?
    it draws on the fat and glycogen stores and makes them be released
  46. the minimum energy expended to keep a resting, awake body alive
    basal metabolism
  47. ___ of total energy a person expends in a day is attributed to basal metabolism
  48. several hours after your glycogen is depleted, your blood glucose begins to fall. At this point, cells with use what for their fuel?
    fatty acids
  49. during fasting what are all used for energy eventually
    • carbs
    • fat
    • protein
  50. low glucose levels signal?
    fat breakdown
  51. during fasting, it begins with release of ____ and ___ ___
    • glucose
    • fatty acids
  52. what are an alternate energy source?
    ketone bodies
  53. acetyl CoA fragments derived from fatty acids that are put together
    ketone bodies
  54. in the first few days of a fast, body ___ provides 90% of the needed glucose and ____ provides the other 10%
    • protein
    • glycerol
  55. As a fast continues, the body finds a way to use ___ to fuel the brain
  56. what helps to fuel the nervous system?
    ketone bodies
  57. the concentration of ketones rising in the blood and blood pH drops
  58. causes your blood to become acidic
  59. what denatures protein, leaving them unable to function
  60. symptoms of starvation?
    • physical symptoms
    • psychological symptoms
  61. slowing of metabolism during fasting?
    • hormones
    • reduces energy output
    • supports weight loss but not fat loss
  62. what causes a loss of appetite
  63. what causes your metabolism to slow down?
  64. what happens in low carb diets?
    • metabolism is similar to fasting
    • urine monitoring
    • ketosis
  65. what happens in low carb diets when glycogen is depleted?
  66. moderate alcohol consumption in adults aged 35-65 can be?
  67. dissolves lipids out of cell membranes allowing the alcohol to penetrate into cells, destroying cell structures and killing the cells
  68. needs to digestion and is quickly absorbed across the walls of an empty stomach, reaching the brain within a few minutes
  69. alcohol moderation means?
    • 1 drink/day for women
    • 2 drinks/day for men
  70. 1 drink?
    • 5oz wine
    • 10oz wine cooler
    • 12 oz beer
    • 1.5 oz liquor
  71. what to do to slow alcohol absorption/
    • eat carb snacks
    • high fat snacks
  72. what do carb snacks do? high fat snacks?
    • slow alcohol absorption
    • keep alcohol in the stomach longer
  73. first thing that breaks down alchol in the stomach?
    alcohol dehydrogenase
  74. alcohol has priority over nutrients in the ?
    small intestine
  75. 2 types of alchols?
    • glycerol
    • ethanol
  76. first to receive alchol-laden blood?
    liver cells
  77. ___ ___ can also make alcohol dehydrogenase to break down alcohol
    liver cells
  78. how much ethanol can the liver process every hour?
    1/2 oz
  79. what is the recommended amount of alcohol per hour?
    1 drink per hour
  80. will build up and get converted to fatty acids and will stored as fat in the body
    acetyl CoA
  81. women produce less ____ ____ than men, and so more alcohol reaches the small intestine for absorption into the bloodstream.
    alcohol dehydrogenase
  82. in the ___ ___ , alcohol is rapidly absorbed. From this point on, alcohol receives ____ treatment and gets absorbed and metabolized before other ____
    • small intestine
    • priority
    • nutrients
  83. the first stage of liver deterioration
    fatty liver
  84. this is reversible with abstinence from alcohol
    fatty liver
  85. 2nd stage of liver deterioration. when liver cells begin to die and fibrous scar tissue is formed on the liver
  86. good nutrition and abstinence from alcohol can cause liver cells to rejuvenate, but scar tissue stays
  87. final stage of alcohol deterioration, damage is not reversible
  88. 3 stages of liver deterioration/
    • fatty liver
    • fibrosis
    • cirrhosis
  89. alcohol causes you to lose your ability to retain ____ (b vitamin_, which devastate the
    • folate
    • digestive system function
  90. can lead to a thiamin deficiency (b vitamin)
    chronic alcohol use
  91. a thiamin deficiency seen in alcoholics that is characterized by paralysis of eye muscles, poor muscle coordination, impaired memory and damaged nerves
    Wernicke-karsakoff syndrome
  92. 15 drinks per week of more
    binge drinking
Card Set:
Ch7 NTD303
2014-04-04 20:01:32
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