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chapter ntd303 powerpoint slides notes
are the most versatile and metabolically active cells in the body
release of water, energy and carbon dioxide aka the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in the living cells
how body obtains and uses energy from food
cell type where chemical reactions occur in the body?
amino acids together to make a protein
glycogen break down to glucose
requires energy, build up
releases energy, breaking down
some of the energy released during the breakdown of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids is captured in the?
high energy compound ATP
contains 3 phosphate groups, which are very easy to split off for energy to power living cells
when the body uses ATP to transfer the energy released during catabolic reactions to power anabolic reactions
provides energy for all cell activities
facilitators of metabolic reactions
associate with enzymes
with a ____ an enzyme cannot function
what is broken down in carb digestion?
whats broken down in fat digestion?
glycerol and fatty acids
what is broken down in protein digestion
catabolism is made up of
what happens when glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids break down?
two new compounds emerge
2 new compounds?
3 carbon structure
can be used to make glucose
2 carbon structure and can NOT be used to make glucose
____ can get converted to make glucose
fatty acids are converted to ____ and therefore cannot make glucose
amino acids and glycerol can be converted to pyruvate and therefore can produce ____
ex of anaerobic exercise?
short distance sprinting
50 free swimming
ex of aerobic exercise?
long distance swimming
are carbs anaerobic, aerobic or both?
are proteins anaerobic, aerobic or both?
anaerobic, aerobic or both?
what type of energy is used first? 2nd?
quick energy needs of pyruvate are known as?
when pyruvate is anaerobic what occurs?
pyruvate to lactate
when pyruvate is aerobic what occurs?
pyruvate to acetyl CoA
slower energy needs over longer periods of time
Only __% of the triglyceride can be used to make ___ (glycerol head). The other __% can not make __(fatty acid tails)
cant be converted back to glucose
can be converted back to glucose through pyruvate
dietary fat to body fat is the most ?
direct and efficient conversion
____ and ___ have other roles to fulfill before conversion to body fat
carbohydrate and protein
when people choose not to eat
food is not available and a person has not choice but to not eat
what happens during the fasting state?
it draws on the fat and glycogen stores and makes them be released
the minimum energy expended to keep a resting, awake body alive
___ of total energy a person expends in a day is attributed to basal metabolism
several hours after your glycogen is depleted, your blood glucose begins to fall. At this point, cells with use what for their fuel?
during fasting what are all used for energy eventually
low glucose levels signal?
during fasting, it begins with release of ____ and ___ ___
what are an alternate energy source?
acetyl CoA fragments derived from fatty acids that are put together
in the first few days of a fast, body ___ provides 90% of the needed glucose and ____ provides the other 10%
As a fast continues, the body finds a way to use ___ to fuel the brain
what helps to fuel the nervous system?
the concentration of ketones rising in the blood and blood pH drops
causes your blood to become acidic
what denatures protein, leaving them unable to function
symptoms of starvation?
slowing of metabolism during fasting?
reduces energy output
supports weight loss but not fat loss
what causes a loss of appetite
what causes your metabolism to slow down?
what happens in low carb diets?
metabolism is similar to fasting
what happens in low carb diets when glycogen is depleted?
moderate alcohol consumption in adults aged 35-65 can be?
dissolves lipids out of cell membranes allowing the alcohol to penetrate into cells, destroying cell structures and killing the cells
needs to digestion and is quickly absorbed across the walls of an empty stomach, reaching the brain within a few minutes
alcohol moderation means?
1 drink/day for women
2 drinks/day for men
10oz wine cooler
12 oz beer
1.5 oz liquor
what to do to slow alcohol absorption/
eat carb snacks
high fat snacks
what do carb snacks do? high fat snacks?
slow alcohol absorption
keep alcohol in the stomach longer
first thing that breaks down alchol in the stomach?
alcohol has priority over nutrients in the ?
2 types of alchols?
first to receive alchol-laden blood?
___ ___ can also make alcohol dehydrogenase to break down alcohol
how much ethanol can the liver process every hour?
what is the recommended amount of alcohol per hour?
1 drink per hour
will build up and get converted to fatty acids and will stored as fat in the body
women produce less ____ ____ than men, and so more alcohol reaches the small intestine for absorption into the bloodstream.
in the ___ ___ , alcohol is rapidly absorbed. From this point on, alcohol receives ____ treatment and gets absorbed and metabolized before other ____
the first stage of liver deterioration
this is reversible with abstinence from alcohol
2nd stage of liver deterioration. when liver cells begin to die and fibrous scar tissue is formed on the liver
good nutrition and abstinence from alcohol can cause liver cells to rejuvenate, but scar tissue stays
final stage of alcohol deterioration, damage is not reversible
3 stages of liver deterioration/
alcohol causes you to lose your ability to retain ____ (b vitamin_, which devastate the
digestive system function
can lead to a thiamin deficiency (b vitamin)
chronic alcohol use
a thiamin deficiency seen in alcoholics that is characterized by paralysis of eye muscles, poor muscle coordination, impaired memory and damaged nerves
15 drinks per week of more