A&P Quiz 10

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Annjones430
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268491
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A&P Quiz 10
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2014-03-30 16:08:21
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Quiz 10
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A&P Quiz 10
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  1. Neuron
    • Nerve Cells
    • Can send neuro-impulse to glands, other neurons, and muscles.
  2. 3 Parts of Neuron
    • Cell Body
    • Dendrites 
    • Axon
  3. Cell Body
    • Nutrients enter and eliminated here
    • Contains high concentration of potassium and low concentration of sodium and chloride. 
    • Concentrations reversed outside of the body and creates electrical current
  4. Dendrites
    • Very small projections 
    • Carry neuro impulses to cell body (afferent process)
    • Very numerous
    • Receive info from axon
  5. Axon
    Carries neuro impulses away from body (efferent process)
  6. Neuro Impulse
    Message that tells receiver what to do
  7. Synapse
    • Juncture at which the neuro impulse is transferred from one neuron to another
    • 100 trillion can occur in brain
  8. Myelin
    • Fatty sheet that insulates the longer or larger axons
    • Increases the speed of the impulse/message
    • MS is a breakdown of this
  9. Neurotransmitters
    • Released when message reaches the end of axon 
    • Chemicals manufactured in the cell body and released from axon
    • They cross the synaptic cleft to receptors on receiving dendrite 
    • 30 different types of them; unique lock and key
    • Deficiencies: mental illness and Parkinson's disease
  10. 3 sections of the Nervous System
    • Central (CNS)
    • Peripheral (PNS)
    • Autonomic (ANS)

    * ANS can be part of PNS
  11. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Brian 
    • Spinal Chord
    • Meninges
    • Ventricles
    • Blood Supply
  12. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Cranial and Spinal Nerves
  13. Autonomic Nervous System
    Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions
  14. Encephalon
    brain
  15. Cerebrum
    • Largest portion of the brain
    • Composed of 2 cerebral hemispheres and Basal Ganglia 
    • Covered by Cerebral Cortex which is composed of sulci/fissures (groves on surface of brain)
    • Gyri: elevations/ridges on the brain
  16. Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Connected by corpus callosum: mass of white matter
    • Passes neurological information from one side of brain to other 
    • Left: Language; Logic; Analytical
    • Right: Creative; Perceptual; Spacial
  17. White Matter
    axons
  18. Gray Matter
    Cell Body
  19. Longitudinal Cerebral Fissure
    • Runs from front to back of brain
    • Separates 2 hemispheres 
    • See corpus callosum through it
  20. 4 Lobes of Each Hemishere
    • Frontal Lobe
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Temporal Lobe
    • Occipital Lobe
  21. Central Sulcus
    • Divides brain into front and back parts
    • Runs across both hemispheres
  22. Frontal Lobe
    • Contains precentral gyrus/primary motor strip
    • Controls voluntary muscle movements on opposite sides of body
  23. Homunculus
    • Represents neurons from the motor strip designated for certain parts of the body
    • More neurons needed for fine motor movements than gross
  24. Brocas Area
    • Located in frontal lobe
    • Motor Strip
    • Motor Speech Planning 
    • Associated with apraxia of speech: motor planning problem that makes encoding difficult
  25. Parietal Lobe
    Bound in front by Central Sulcus
  26. Postcentral Gyrus
    • Located in parietal lobe behind central sulcus 
    • Primary sensory strip
    • Receives information; hot vs cold
    • Relays information involving temperature, pain, touch, proprioception (knowing where one body part is in relation to another)
  27. Temporal Lobe
    Responsible for hearing
  28. Heschl's Gyrus
    • Located in Temporal Lobe (Left Hemisphere)
    • Primary Auditory Cortex
    • Responsible for meaning of sound (if damaged, difficulty putting meaning to sound)
  29. Wernicke's Area
    • Located in Temporal Lobe (Left Hemisphere)
    • Auditory comprehension of Language 
    • Next to Heschl's Gyrus 
    • If damaged, cannot understand people's speech and their own speech doesn't make sense.
  30. Occipital Lobe
    • Back of cerebral 
    • Primary visual cortex
    • Responsible for vision and visual perception
  31. Basal Ganglia
    • Gray matter
    • Below cerebral cortex
    • Composed of several different structures 
    • Responsible for controling and stabalizing motor functions and interpreting sensory information 
    • Just above and around the brain stem 
    • Cranial Nerve exits through brain stem 
    • Information goes from motor strip to muscles through here 
    • Information comes into sensory strip through here
  32. Dysarthria
    • Impairment in oral communication due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles
    • May involve respiration
  33. Cerebellum
    • Under base of occipital lobe at the back 
    • Contains left and right hemisphere 
    • Coordinates skilled voluntary muscle movement that are planned in motor strip
  34. Brain Stem
    • Projects upward into brain between cerebral hemispheres 
    • Contains several structures: Medulla (lowermost section; Pons (middle); and Midbrain (uppermost part)
  35. Spinal Cord
    • Vertebrae: bony structure 
    • Extends from foramen magnum: large opening in base of skull
    • Extends down lower back
    • Encased in vertebral column
    • Cross Section: H shaped picture of gray matter (motor and sensory neurons) surrounded by white matter
  36. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    • Flows around spinal cord and brain 
    • Fills ventricles of brain
  37. Meninges
    • 3 membranes below bone of skull 
    • Cushion and protect the brain
  38. 3 Membranes of Meninges
    • Dura Mater (Tough Mother): closest to skull; fairly strong
    • Arachnoid Mater (Spider Mother): Porous and web like; space for arteries, veins, and cerebrospinal fluid
    • Pia Mater (Delicate): thin fragile membrane closest to brain
  39. Ventricles
    • Cavities within brain 
    • Connected by canals and ducts
    • Filled with Cerebrospinal fluid which brings nutrition to nerve tissue
    • Regulates intracranial pressure
    • Hydrocephalus: too much cerebrospinal fluid Helps cushion brain
  40. Lateral Fissure
    Separation between frontal and temporal lobes

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