Biol 251 unit 3

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Biol 251 unit 3
2014-04-09 22:06:52
Biol251 microbiology

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  1. Contaminants
    Presence of microbes (pathogens & non-pathogens) in certain places we don't want them.
  2. Decontamination
    The process of removing/destroying undesired microbes
  3. Resistance
    The ability of microbes to withstand some type of decontamination/destruction
  4. What can we do to to effect the resistance of microbes to decontamination?
    • Time of exposure to physical or chemical agent.
    • Usually the longer we expose the microbes to the agentĀ  will increase its effectiveness.
  5. Which are the cell characteristics that may increase its resistance to decontamination?
    • Endospores protect the bacteria from physical & chemical decontamination.
    • Mycolic acid protects bacteria from many kinds of chemical decontamination
  6. What is the formation cells that makes them resistance to decontamination?
  7. In which genetic/metabolic activity phase decontamination likely to be most effective?
    Log phase because the metabolic activity and growth is fastest which makes the bacteria to ingest other chemicals other then nutrients.
  8. Which decontamination method can we use to destroy/kill all microbes/cells?
    • Sterilization
    • Often also refers as "cidal" method
  9. Which decontamination method should we use to keep the number of bacteria low enough, so they won't make us sick?
    • Sensitization
    • Often times refered as static method
  10. Which are the different categories of physical decontamination methods?
    • Temperature cold & hot
    • Radiation ionizing & non-ionizing
    • Filtration remove microbes but not toxins
  11. What is the purpose of using cold temperature as method of contamination?
    To keep microbes from growing but not to kill them
  12. What is the purpose of using hot temperature as method of contamination? Which are the different categories?
    • Kill all microbes spores included or keep them from growing.
    • Moist heat: autoclave, non-pasteurizing steam, boiling, pasteurization.
    • Dry heat: ovens and incineration.
  13. What damage "ionizing radiation" may cause to cells?
    What is the source of it?
    • Ionizing radiation cause electron ejection from molecules. It can cause bonds to break up, incorrect bonds, or release of toxins that lead to the death of the cell.
    • X ray & gamma ray
  14. What damage "non-ionizing radiation" may cause to cells?
    What is the source of it?
    • Non-ionizing radiation moves electrons around the molecule but not eject them. As result, abnormal bonds will form in the molecule that will effect its function and shape.
    • UV light
  15. How we may use "non-ionizing radiation" as decontamination?
    • Water treatment: drinking & sewage
    • disinfecting nonporous substances
    • Personal products
  16. How may we use "ionizing radiation" as decontamination?
    Food preservation
  17. When may we use "filtration" as decontamination?
    To remove microbes from air & liquids in cases that other methods cannot be used.
  18. Which forms of chemicals can be used for decontamination?
    Liquids, gases, and solids
  19. In which ways chemicals that are used in decontamination can damage cells?
    • Digest and break down cell walls.
    • Effect the permeability or make big holes in the cell membrane.
    • Bind to DNA and interfere with its ability to replicate, make proteins, or breaking it apart.
    • Denture proteins that change their structures a functions.
  20. Define disinfectants?
    What they are used on?
    • Kills only vegetative microbes (not spores)
    • Used on non-living things (EX: Bleach)
  21. Define antiseptics?
    What they are used on?
    • Chemical that prevent growth of microbes but doesn't kill them
    • Used on the surface of the skin or inside the body
  22. Define sterilant?
    What they are used on?
    • A chemical that kills everything including spores.
    • Used only on non-living things
  23. Define degermer?
    What they are used on?
    A chemical that is used for removing microbes and debris from the body and often not even kill them.
  24. Define preservative?
    What they are used in?
    • Chemical that keeps microbes from growing in foods and medicines.
    • Used in non-living things
  25. Halogens
    • Chlorine: a disinfectant that breaks down S to S and S to H bonds in proteins causing the proteins to fall apart.
    • Iodine: an antiseptic that enter the cell and interfere with its metabolism and different components especially sulfur bonds in proteins
  26. Cell membrane inhibitors
    Polymyxins: polymyxin B sulfate
  27. Cell wall inhibitors classes and drugs examples
    • Bete-lactam: penicillins & cephalosporins
    • Non-beta lactams:Vancomycin & bacitracin
  28. DNA/RNA inhibitors drugs class & example
    • Class: Fluroquinolones
    • drug ex: Ciprofloxacin
  29. DNA/RNA inhibitors drugs are bind to which enzyme on gram (-) and gram (+)?
    • Gram -: Gyras
    • Gram+: Topoisomerase
  30. Aminoglycosides class drags examples
    On which structure they will work?
    • Streptomycin
    • Gentamycin

    30S part of ribosome
  31. Protein inhibitors class of drugs that work on tRNA & m RNA? What side effects they have
    Tetracyclines: EX: Doxycycline

    Stain teeth, effect developing bones, GI tract problems in adults.
  32. Protein inhibitors class of drugs that work on bonds between amino acids? What side effects they have

    Can cause plastic anemia in some people
  33. Protein inhibitors class of drugs that work on 50S part of ribosome and bonds between amino acids? Give example drugs
    • Marolides:
    • Erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin
  34. Metabolism inhibitors class of drugs.
    What is the specific substance these drugs interfere with?
    • Sulfa drugs
    • Folic acid synthesis
  35. What type of decontamination heavy metals are used for?
  36. Which are the most common heavy metals that are used in decontamination?
    • More common: silver sulfadiazine & silver nitrate
    • Less common: metallic silver & colloidal silver
  37. Which diseases are caused by bacteria that get destroyed by soap?
    Which bacteria can grow in soap dishes?
    • Gonorrhea, meningitis, syphilis.
    • Pseudomonas
  38. What are alcohol's the mechanism of action?
    • denature proteins (if concentrate enough)
    • damage cell membrane
    • Dehydrate cells
  39. What are phenols mechanism of action?
    What determine its action?
    • Disrupting cell wall
    • disrupting cell membrane
    • Cause protein damage
    • Inactive enzyme
    • interfere with DNA
    • The outside group of phenol determine its MOA
  40. What are iodine's mechanism of action?
    • Interfere with metabolism & different components of the cell
    • Effects enzyme function by binding to their active sites
    • Effect sulfur bonds in amino acids
  41. What type of drug is Polymyxin B sulfate?
    Against which type of bacteria it will work on?
    • Cell membrane inhibitor
    • Gram negative
  42. How does lysosome destroy cells?
    Where it can be found?
    • Break down peptidoglycan in cell wall
    • Saliva & tears
  43. How does defensins destroy cells?
    Entering to the cell membrane and pull lipid apart from each other. making big holes in the membrane.
  44. Pyrogen on gram negative
  45. What does fever do to our immune system?
    Speeds up metabolism, increase enzyme function, increase phagocytes activity, and help uptake available iron in our blood.
  46. Which are the three steps of phagocytosis?
    • Chemotaxis, binding, and ingestion
    • Phagolysosome formation
    • Destruction and elimination
  47. Which are the four steps of complement?
    • Initiation
    • Amplification
    • Polymerization
    • Membrane attack
  48. What is IFN's mechanism of action?
    Which is the source of it?
    • Interferon prevent viruses from replicate themselves.
    • IFN can be made by our cells or given to us in a medicine
  49. Naturalization
    • Antibody attaches to a virus and prevent it from attaching to our cells.
    • Also inhibits some toxins
  50. Opsonization
    Antibody attaches to a microbe and mark it so macrophage will be able to recognize it
  51. Complement fixation
    Antibodies stuck to big protein complex in complement cascadeand help break down microbes
  52. Agglutination
    Antibodies clump microbes together in big lumps making it easier for the body to fight them
  53. IgG
    The most common antibody in our body that gives us long term protection
  54. IgA
    Antibody that found in mucus and saliva. It traps microbes before they invade our body
  55. IgM
    Antibody that produced at the first time we get infected with some microbe. It clamps the microbes together so the body can react to them
  56. IgD
    Antibody in low level in our body that help IgM
  57. IgE
    Antibody that produced in cases of allergy or worm infections
  58. Examples of live attenuated vaccines
    • Varicella (chickenpox)
    • Influenza (spray)
    • Rotavirus
    • MMR
  59. Examples of killed/inactivated whole microbe vaccine.
    • Polio
    • Hepatitis A
    • Influenza injection
  60. Examples of subunit vaccines
    • Hepatitis B
    • Pertussis
    • influenza injection
    • Heamop
  61. Examples of toxoid vaccin
    • Diphtheria
    • Tetanus