Biology Ch 4
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What Does DNA stand for?
What does Deoxy mean?
Deoxy means "no oxy" or no oxygen - less one oxygen
What does RNA mean?
What is Organic Chemistry?
The study of compounds that contain Carbon
How does carbon enter the biosphere?
through the action of plants that use the CO2 out of the atmosphere along with solar energy to make glucose. the producers are then eaten by consumers passing the carbon on.
Most organic compounds contain what two elements?
What other elements are important to life?
Carbon and Hydrogen
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosperous
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws (foundation of early organic chemistry)
belief that physical and chemical laws govern all phenomena, including life
Why is Carbon so important?
Carbon has 6 electrons -2 in first shell, 4 in valence = TETRAVALENCE
need 4 more electrons to be stable to forms all kinds of bonds
when carbon forms 4 single covalent bonds the arrangement is similar to a pyramid . The bond angles are 109.5o
Structural formula of CO2
What happens when two carbons form a double bond?
All the bonds around those carbons are on the same plane - the molecule is flat
- Carbon chains for the skeletons of most organic molecules
- molecules that consist of only carbons and hydrogens arranged in different ways
- (hydrocarbons are the major component of petrolium)
- Fats = store energy
3 types of carbon skeletons
- 1. Unbranched
- 2. Branched
- 3. Rings
two molecules have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
- C6H12O6 = Glucose
- C6H12O6 = Fructose (sweeter than glucose)
BUILT DIFFERENT = IF FORM IS DIFFERENT THEN FUNCTION WILL BE DIFFERENT
Difference depends on a doulbe bond and the arrangements of the atoms around the double bond.
isomers that have mirror images of each other (right hand and left hand)
- important in pharmaceutical
- thalidomide - (50 & 60s) reduced morning sickness but enantiomer caused birth defects
- ibuprophen - reduces pain and inflamation but enantiomer does nothing
- albuterol - asthma but enantiomer counteracts the effect
different chemical groups that bond to a carbon skeleton and alter its function by changing its shape or by being directly involved in chemical reactions
What are the six functional groups and what group goes with them?
methyl - not a functional group
why is methyl not a functional group?
The six functional groups are hydrophiluic and increase solubility of organic compounds in water
The methyl group is hydrophobic and acts as a recognizable tag on biological molecules
- Adenosine Triphosphate - Three Phosphate groups - stores the potental to react with water - when it reacts with water it produces energy and ADP (looses a phosphate - Adenosine Diphosphate)
Equation for Photoshythesis
sun + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
- Hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to a carbon skeleton
- Ethanol (alcoholic beverages)
- Carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond
if the corbonyl group is attached to a carbon in the middle of the skeleton (acetone)
- Called Aldehydes if the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon at the end of the skeleton (propanal)
- Carboxylic Acid
- An oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to an -OH (Hydroxyl) group
- Acetic Acid (which is in vinegar)
- Nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
- Amino acids are carbon skeletons with both an Amino Group and a Carboxyl groups attached
- Thiols (present in amino acids)
- Sullfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
- phosphorus atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms - one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton - two oxygens carry negative charges
- *Relases energy when it reacts with water*
- ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate (tri = 3 energy)
- ADP- Adenosine Diphosphate (di=2 energy)
- NOT a functional group - HYDROPHOBIC
- carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms (methy group may be attached to carbon or a different atom)
- Vital for Hormones - methy groups in sex hormones affect their shape and function
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