First Aid

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shakesula
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268553
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First Aid
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2014-03-30 23:09:39
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Army Study Guide
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First Aid from Army Study Guide
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  1. What is Self Aid?
    Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
  2. Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
    • Bayonet
    • Rifle
    • Entrenching tool
    • Tent poles and stakes
    • Web belt
  3. What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
    Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
  4. How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there onthe human body?
    11
  5. What is the object of first aid?
    • 1. To stop bleeding
    • 2. Overcome shock
    • 3. Relieve pain
    • 4. Prevent infection
  6. What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
    FM 4-25.11
  7. What is First Aid?
    It is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel can be made available
  8. What is the unique feature of type "O" blood?
    It is a universal donor
  9. When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
    If in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
  10. What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
    Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)
  11. How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
    2 to 4 inches
  12. What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
    • 1. Open the airway and restore breathing
    • 2. Stop the bleeding / Protect the wound
    • 3. Prevent shock
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 2-1 / PDF 23)
  13. When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
    The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
  14. Whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty?
    Use the casualty’s field dressing.

    FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 2-16 / PDF 42)
  15. How should the ends of an improved pressure dressing be tied?
    Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. DO NOT tie so tightly that it has a tourniquet-like effect.
  16. What is manual pressure?
    If bleeding continues after applying the sterile field dressing, direct manual pressure may be used to help control bleeding. Apply such pressure by placing a hand on the dressing and exerting firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes. The casualty may be asked to do this himself if he is conscious and can follow instructions.

    (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 2-17 / PDF 43)
  17. Should a casualty be given water to drink?
    He should not eat or drink
  18. Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
    To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding
  19. What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?
    • Mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 2-20 / PDF 51)
  20. Should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?
    No, only qualified medical personnel can do that
  21. Where is a tourniquet applied?
    Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart).Never place it directly over a wound, a fracture, or joint. Tourniquets, for maximum effectiveness, should be placed on the upper arm or above the knee on the thigh.

    (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 2-20 / PDF 49)
  22. How can you prevent athlete's foot?
    Keep your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily
  23. Name 3 categories of heat injuries
    • 1. Heat cramps
    • 2. Heat exhaustion
    • 3. Heat stroke

    (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 113)
  24. What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
    • 1. Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs)
    • 2. Abdominal Cramps (stomach)
    • 3. Excessive Sweating
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 114)
  25. What is the treatment for heat cramps?
    • 1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
    • 2. Loosen his clothing (if not in a chemical environment)

    In a chemical environment, transport the heat casualty to a non-contaminated area as soon as the missionpermits.

    • 3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water. (The body absorbs cool water faster than warm or coldwater; therefore, cool water is preferred if it is available.)
    • 4. Seek medical assistance should cramps continue.
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 114)
  26. What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
    • 1. Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
    • 2. Headache
    • 3. Weakness
    • 4. Dizziness
    • 5. Loss of appetite
    • 6. Cramping
    • 7. Nausea (with or without vomiting)
    • 8. Urge to defecate
    • 9. Chills (Gooseflesh)
    • 10. Rapid Breathing
    • 11. Tingling of Hands/Feet
    • 12. Confusion
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 114)
  27. What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
    • 1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
    • 2. Loosen or remove his clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment); pour water on him and fan him.
    • 3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water
    • .4. Elevate his legs.
    • 5. If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day.
    • 6. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives.
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 115)
  28. What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
    • 1. Skin is red, hot and dry
    • 2. Weakness
    • 3. Dizziness
    • 4. Confusion
    • 5. Headaches
    • 6. Seizures
    • 7. Nausea
    • 8. Stomach pains or cramps
    • 9. Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak.
    • 10. Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 116)
  29. What would the treatment be for heat stroke?Cool casualty immediately by—
    • 1. Moving him to a cool, shady area or improvising shade if none is available.
    • 2. Loosening or removing his clothing (except in a chemical environment).
    • 3. Spraying or pouring water on him; fanning him to permit the coolant effect of evaporation.
    • 4. Massaging his extremities and skin, which increases the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding the cooling process.
    • 5. Elevating his legs.
    • 6. Having him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water if he is conscious.
    • 7. Seek medical assistance immediately
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 5-2 / PDF 116)
  30. If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway?
    The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
  31. What are two basic types of fractures?
    1. Open (compound)2. Closed (simple)(FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 1-6 / PDF 21)
  32. What are some signs of an open fracture?
    • Bleeding.
    • Bones sticking through the skin.
    • Check for pulse.
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 1-6 / PDF 21)
  33. What are some signs of a closed fracture?
    • Swelling.
    • Discoloration.Deformity.
    • Unusual body position.
    • Check for pulse.
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 1-6 / PDF 21)
  34. With an open fracture, what should you do first?
    Stop the bleeding
  35. What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
    "Splint them where they lie"
  36. How tight should tourniquet be?
    Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
  37. What are the three types of bleeding?
    1. Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat

    2. Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream

    3. Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
  38. Name 4 common points for checking pulse
    • 1. Carotid- The side of the neck
    • 2. Femoral- The groin
    • 3. Radial- The wrist
    • 4. Posterial Tibial- Ankle
    • (FM 4-25.11 Dec 2002 / 2-19 / PDF 46)
  39. What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
    • Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
    • Restlessness and nervousness
    • Thirst
    • Loss of blood
    • Confusion
    • Fast breathing
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips)
    • Often perspires freely
    • May pass out.
  40. What is the treatment for shock?
    • Position the casualty on their back
    • Elevate the Legs
    • Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
    • Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
    • Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
    • Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
  41. What is a heat injury?
    A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body
  42. What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?
    Cleanliness
  43. How do you stop bleeding?
    • Apply a field dressing
    • Manual pressure
    • Elevate the limb
    • Apply a pressure dressing
    • Digital Pressure
    • Apply a tourniquet
  44. What is CPR?
    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat
  45. When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
    • When a doctor tells you to stop
    • When others relieve you
    • When you cannot physically continue
    • When the casualty starts to breath on his own

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