ESS 349

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carey.came
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268568
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ESS 349
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2014-04-02 00:57:56
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Exam 2
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  1. 3 Major Theories of Team Development
    Linear, Cyclical, Pendular
  2. Linear
    • Groups move progressively through stages
    • 1. Forming - Familiarize themselves
    • 2. Storming - internal conflict
    • 3. Norming - Resolving conflict and moving forward
    • 4. Performing - work together to achieve goals
  3. Cyclical
    Assumes groups perform like a life cycle

    Birth to growth to death

    Emphasis on the end and teams psychologically prepare for it
  4. Pendular
    Assumes they do not move through stages linearly

    Environmental Influences effect development
  5. Tips for Creating an Effective Team Climate
    • Social Support
    • Proximity
    • Distinctiveness
    • Similarity
    • Fairness
  6. Steiner's Model
    Actual Production = Potential Production - Losses due to faulty group processes (Motivation and Coordination)
  7. Ringelmann Effect
    Individual performance decreases as group size increases
  8. Social Loafing
    individuals put in less than 100% effort to a group because of losses in motivation
  9. Preventing Social Loafing
    • 1. Emphasize importance of individual contributions
    • 2. Recognize individual performances
    • 3. Discuss social loafing with individuals
    • 4. Appreciate teammate's responsibilities
    • 5. Divide the team into smaller units
  10. Cohesion
    • Dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and
    • remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs 

    1. Dynamic, Affective, Instrumental, Multidimensional
  11. 2 Types of cohesion
    Task - degree to which a group is working together to reach a common goal

    Social - degree to which group members like each other
  12. Cohesion-Performance Relationship
    Relationship based on three factors:

    • 1. Type of cohesion
    • 2. Task Demands - interactive vs. coactive teams
    • 3. Direction of causality
  13. Building Team Cohesion Coaching
    • CASED
    • Communicate Effectively
    • Avoid Excessive Turnover
    • Set challenging group goals
    • Encourage group identity
    • Develop pride
  14. Building Team Cohesion Members
    • GGGRB
    • Get to know all the members
    • Give 100% effort all the time
    • Give positive reinforcement
    • Resolve conflicts immediately
    • Be responsible (Do not blame)
  15. Approaches to Studying Leadership
    Trait, Behavioral, Interactional
  16. Trait Approach
    Looks at personality characteristics of leaders
  17. Behavioral Approach Non-Sport Leaders
    Based on Consideration and Initiating Structures

    • Consideration: mutual trust, respect
    • Structures: focus on rules, goals, and objectives
  18. Behavioral Approach Sport Leaders
    Instruction and Demonstration - positive feedback and clear instruction

    • Coach vs. Peer leaders
    • 1. Coaches - Autocratic behavior with training and instruction
    • 2. Peer - Democratic behavior with social support and positive feedback

    • Reactive and Spontaneous Behaviors
    • 1. CBAs
    • 2. Positive Coaching Behavior
  19. Coaching Behavior Assessment System
    CBAS

    Reactive and Spontaneous Behaviors
  20. Reactive Behaviors
    • KRIMMPP
    • Keeping Control
    • Reinforcement
    • Ignoring Mistakes
    • Mistake-contingent encouragement
    • Mistake-contingent technical instruction
    • Punishment
    • Punitive technical instruction
  21. Spontaneous Behaviors
    • GOGG
    • General Technical Instruction
    • Organization
    • General Communication
    • General Encouragement
  22. Interactional Approach
    Person and situation factors helped understand effective leadership

    Relationship Oriented or Task Oriented
  23. Cognitive-mediational model (Interactional)
    Leader (coach) behaviors are a function of...

    • 1. Personal Characteristics
    • 2. Situational Factors
    • 3. Athlete's perceived meanings of coach behavior
  24. 4 Components of Effective Leadership
    • 1. Leader's Qualities
    • 2. Situational Factors
    • 3. Leadership Styles
    • 4. Follower's Qualities
  25. Deliver Message Effectively
    • BOBBA
    • Be Direct
    • Own Your Message
    • Be complete and specific
    • Be clear and consistent
    • Avoid Hidden Agendas
  26. Receive Message Effectively
    • BUMP
    • Be flexible
    • Use verbal and nonverbal behaviors
    • Mentally prepare to listen
    • Paraphrase
  27. Ineffective Communication
    • CRRRIM
    • Content is wrong
    • Receiver does not listen
    • Receiver misinterprets content
    • Receiver misinterprets intent
    • Inappropriate transmission
    • Messages are inconsistent
  28. DEAL w/ consequences
    • Describe the problem
    • Explain your feelings
    • Ask for a change
    • List consequences of change
  29. Sandwich Approach
    • 1. Positive Statement
    • 2. Future oriented instruction
    • 3. Compliment
  30. The role of the coach (Steiner's model)
    • Increase relevant resources
    • -training, instruction, recruting

    • Reduce process losses
    • - enhance cohesion and emphasize individual contributions
  31. Environmental Factors
    • Contractual Responsibilities
    • - scholarship, location

    • Organizational Orientation
    • -Size
    • -Level of Competition
  32. Personal Factors
    • ISS
    • Individual Orientation
    • Satisfaction
    • Similar Demographics
  33. Leadership Factors
    Leadership Style, Leadership Behavior, Coach-Athlete Relationship
  34. Conceptual Model of Cohesion
    • Personal
    • Environment -> Team -> Cohesion 
    • Leadership                          v
    •                                          v
    •                                          v
    •                    Individual and Team Outcomes
  35. Team Factors
    • Group Task
    • Group Productivity Norm
    • Team Stability
    • Team Ability
    • Desire for Group Success
  36. Stress and Injury Relationship
    Complex and highest relationship in athletes with poor coping skills and low social support
  37. Explaining Stress-Injury Relationship
    • Attentional Changes
    • Increased Muscle Tension
    • Acting Tough
    • Believing One is Irreplaceable
    • Fear of Losing Position
  38. Kubler-Ross Model
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Depression
    • Acceptance
  39. Poor Psychological Responses to Injury
    • Fear and Anxiety
    • Loss of Identity
    • Lack of Confidence
    • Performance Decrements
  40. Poor Adjustment to Injury
    • Excessive Anger
    • Mood Swings
    • Withdrawal
    • Denial 
    • Confusion
  41. Psychological Skills Testing (PST or MST)
    • Imagery
    • Self Talk
    • Relaxation
    • Goal Setting
  42. Building Confidence in Rehab
    • BEWOT
    • Believe in Program
    • Educate them on the Program
    • Walk Strong
    • Opportunities for Success are provided
    • Talk Strong

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