Pharm 2 - Respiratory

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Pharm 2 - Respiratory
2014-03-31 20:40:45
Pharm 2 - Respiratory
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  1. What is a prostaglandin?
    a local hormone that is in every tissue
  2. What do prostaglandins do?
    • mediate inflammation
    • protect GI & renal
    • regulate smooth muscle
    • blood clotting
  3. When taking NSAIDS, the pt should know to report a fever that does not diminish below _____.
    100 F  (37.8 C)
  4. Pts taking NSAIDS should immediately report what?
    • tinnitus
    • dizziness or vertigo
    • nausea
    • eye pain or blurred vision
  5. Pts taking NSAIDS should increase _______.
    fluid intake
  6. What type of wt changes should a pt report who is on NSAIDS?
    • wt gain of more than 1kg in 24 hrs
    • wt gain of more than 2kg in a week
    • -also rpt increasing peripheral edema
  7. When should NSAIDs not be given to children under 19?
    • (aspirin or salicylates) 
    • within 203 weeks after the varicalla vaccination
  8. Teaching points for pts taking antihistamines.
    • Do not take OTC drugs in conjunction (could cause HTN)
    • Do not drink apple, grapefuit, or OJ within one hour of taking them
    • Increase fluid intake to liquify & mobilize mucus
    • (monitor for dizziness & drowsiness)
  9. When should antihistamines be used with caution and avoided?
    • caution - pts with HF
    • avoid - pts with glaucoma
  10. Pt teaching with intranasal corticosteroids.
    • avoid swallowing the med
    • clear nose B4 using
    • supplement w/ nasal saline for dryness
  11. When should decongestants be avoided and used with caution?
    • Avoid:
    • -with MAOIs
    • -with nitrates
    • -with cardiac drugs (Digoxin)
    • Caution:
    • -HTN (CNS Stim) &
    • -BPH (decreases UOP)
  12. Use for antitussive.
    • raises cough threshold
    • (dextromethorphan)
  13. Use of expectorants.
    Reduces thickness or viscosity of bronchial secretions
  14. Med used in pts with CF, chronic bronchitis, etc.
  15. Two primary categories of drugs for asthma.
    • Bronchodilators
    • Steroids
  16. 3 types of inhalers.
    • Metered-dose inhaler
    • Dry powder inhaler
    • Nebulizer
  17. Most frequently prescribed drugs for treatment of bronchoconstriction.
    B-2 adrenergic agonists
  18. What are B-2 adrenergic agonists used for?
    • *Albuterol
    • ACUTE ATTACKS (short-acting)
    • can also be used as long-acting maintenance drug
  19. Drug interactions with Albuterol??
    • BB (non-selective)
    • MAOIs
  20. Main thing to monitor for with Albuterol.
  21. What two classes of bronchodilation (inhalation) meds can be combined to produce greater, more prolonged bronchodilation?
    • B-adrenergic agonists
    • anticholinergics
  22. Ipratropium (anticholinergic) is almost always used in combo with what?
    Albuterol (B-2 adrenergic agonist)
  23. Use of anticholinergic inhalers can worsen what?
  24. Do not use anticholinergic bronchodilators for what?
    to stop an acute asthma attack
  25. Methylxanthines are reserved for what?
    • long-term management of persistent asthma that is
    • unresponsive to B-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids
  26. What is the risk with Methylxanthines (Theophylline)?
    toxicity (narrow TI)
  27. What drug is Methylxanthines related to?
  28. How are Methylxanthines administered?
    IV (not avail for inhalation)
  29. ________ are used to prevent bronchospasm.
  30. Most effectice drugs for long-term control of asthma.
    inhaled corticosteroids
  31. What are glucocorticoids used for in the treatment of asthma?
    • prophylaxis
    • reduce long-term adverse effects of disease
    • suppress inflammation
  32. why wouldn't you give oral steroids to a diabetic pt?
    they increase BGL
  33. Serious adverse effects of Beclomethasone (glucocorticoid asthma treatment)
    • catactacts with long-term therapy
    • growth inhibition in kiddos
  34. Primary use of Leukotriene modifiers.
    • asthma prophylaxis
    • (reduce inflammation)
  35. Drug interactions for leukotriene modifiers.
    • P450 inhibitors
    • warfarin
    • erythromycin
    • theophylline
    • aspirin
  36. Most common side effect with lueukotriene modifiers.
  37. When should you tell a pt to take Zafirlukast (luekotriene modifier)?
    on an empty stomach
  38. Prevents trigger of IgE mast cells.
    Monoclonal antibodies
  39. Which class of resp drugs should you teach the pt to rinse their mouth out?
    • anticholinergics
    • B-2 adrenergic agonists
    • glucocorticoids
  40. Resp drugs given for acute therapy?