CRIM 2251

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CRIM 2251
2014-04-09 15:12:11

Crime and Mental Disorders
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  1. NGRI
    Not guilty by reason of insanity
  2. Mental Retardation
    • Cognitive deficiency
    • Clinically called a developmental disability
  3. DSM
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  4. Schizophrenia
    Mental disorder that manifests itself in highly bizarre actions
  5. Delusion
    false beliefs about the world
  6. Hallucinations
    Sensing or perceiving things or events that are not there
  7. Delusional/paranoid Disorder
    Characterized by the presence of on or more  non bizarre delusions that persist for at least one month
  8. Major Depressive Disorder
    Extremely depressive state; lasting more than two weeks
  9. Mania
    An excessive euphoric state.
  10. Adjudicative competency
    • Correct term for competency to stand trial
    • One must have the comptencey to
    • (1) proceed (understand)
    • (2) make decisions
  11. Right & Wrong Test
    • M'Naghten Test:
    • 1. being aware of knowing what was right/wrong at time of the act
    • 2. morally realizing right from wrong
    • Responsible or not
  12. Brawner Rule
    • Disease or mental defect  substantially and directly:
    • influenced the defendant's mental/emotional processes
    • Impaired his or her ability to control behvaiour
  13. Durham Rule
    One cannot be held criminally responsible if unlawful action is a product of mental illness
  14. 2 types of aggression
    Expressive and instrumental
  15. Expressive/reactive
    • emotionally/impulse driven
    • Emotion interferes w/ self-regulatory mechanism
    • Amygdala hijack the brain
  16. Instrumental aggression
    • Goal driven- to obtain something
    • Know violence will result in injury/death
  17. 1973 Morrison
    • Typology of violent offenders and murderers
    • 11 kinds of murderers 4 kinds of murderers
  18. Subcultural Murderer
    • Falase attribution of intent
    • Violent cognitive
    • Always resolving conflict w/ violence
    • Feel threatened
    • i.e. d/t eastside
    • Accepts violence as a problem solving technique
    • Classic violent offender characteristics:  violent cognitive scripts, thought pattern learned early in life (age 6)
  19. Deliberate anti-social lifestyle murderer
    • Offending early in life
    • Commit homocide incidental to another crime
    • Often instrumental
    • Anti-scoail traits/high psychopathy
  20. One-time offender
    • Morrison 1973
    • Predominately commits homocide
    • amygdala
    • Different than anti-social and sub-cultural
    • , as they are usually provoked (emotions)
    • Set of circumstances lead to
  21. Mentally disordered murderer
    • Morrison 1973
    • Risk of engaging in violence homocide
    • Specifics increase risk
    • HOWEVER, most with m/d do not engage in violence; but increased risk of..
    • Psychopathology and mental disorder are interchangable
  22. Megargee
    • Sociologists who found 2  personalities that are overrepresented in prision
    • 1.) Under controlled aggressive
    • 2.) Over controlled aggressive
  23. Under controlled aggression
    • Megargee
    • individual with low inhibitions for:
    • Impaired impulse control
    • Impaired empathy
  24. Over controlled aggressive
    • Abnormally rigid control against violence
    • Do not behave violently/displace aggression
    • Build up over years, respond violently and lose control
    • lose self-control
    • After loss, return to being over control, then show over number of years
    • In prision they are shy and timid
    • *Cognitively rehearse grievences against them
    • Expressive
    • They constantly suppress then eventually snap
    • Measureable by the MMPI-2 in these terms
  25. MMPI-2 measures
    • everything we know about sub-cultural murderer
    • low inhibition against violence, easily provoked, frustrated, poor, impulse control violence tens to escalate over time
  26. According to Morrison...
    • There are 11 types of murderers; then placed into one of 4 major categories of murderers:
    • 1. Subcultural Murderer
    • 2. Deliberate anti-social murderer
    • 3. One-time offender murderer
    • 4. Mentally disordered murderer
  27. Mental Disorders defined by APA
    • Their symptoms
    • Present: the DSM 5th Edition (May 2013) Problems:
    • Theoretical
    • No Treatment
  28. Delusion
    • False beliefe based on incorrect inference about external reality & retained regardless of proof presented
    • usuaklly remain; but can change
  29. Hallucination
    • Sensory perception w/o external stimuli of the relevent sensory organ
    • Auditory, Visual
    • *Can hallucinate and not be delusional
  30. Psychotocism and psychosis
    not in touch with reality
  31. psychotocism
    Psychoticism refers to a personality pattern typified by aggressiveness and interpersonal hostility
  32. Psychopathy
    Personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others and the rules of society
  33. Psychopathology
    Psychopathology is the study of mental illness, mental distress, and abnormal/maladaptive behavior
  34. Psychotic
    characteristic of or suffering from psychosis
  35. Labile affect
    • rapid, repeat, abrupt shift in emotion
    • Characteristic in several disorders
  36. Violent Mental Disorders
    • Bipolar I Disorder
    • Depressive Disorder
    • Psychotic Disorder:
    • -Schizophrenia
    • -Schizo-paranoid type
    • Delusional Disorders:
    • -Erotomanic Type
    • -Jealous Type
    • - persecutory Type
  37. Bipolar I Disorder
    • No longer a mood disorder (DSM-V)
    • Violent in depressive or manic stagemore likely in manic
    • Depression--slowly-->Manic
    • Mania mode: Expansive elevated, irritable, high-rated impulsive mood
    • Interference during manic stage can equal violence
    • See self as unstoppable
    • Mood-stabilizing medication to stabilize
  38. Depression w/ Mood-incongruence*
    • w/ depressive episode--> Mood incongruent psychosis
    • Murder-suicide during major depressive episode
    • 10%-15% kill selves b/c depression
    • When hjave mood incongruent psychosis danger increases of suicide
  39. Schizophrenia Schizo-Paranoid Type
    • *Pychotic Disorder
    • S-P Type->Most likely to engage in violence
    • Auditory(sometimes visual) hallucinations
    • Preoccupation w/ a delusion around a theme
    • Hafner and Boker:
    • -5/1000
    • Substance abuse increases risk of violence
    • Macartur: Violence risk assessment study
    • -History of violence increases risk of violence
    • -Violent command hallucinations & delusions increase violence
    • Persecutory delusions+Grandiose=Increased Violence
  40. Delusional Disorder
    • Erotonamic Type
    • Jealous Type
    • Persacutory Type
  41. Erotonamic Type
    • *Delusional Disorder
    • Idealized, romantic love w/ someone who has no awareness
    • Significant source of harassment
    • IF, think someone is interfering with obsessed love or self will violently react
    • i.e. rescue person from danger=violence
  42. Jealous Type
    • Delusional Disorder*
    • Unfaithful w/o cause
    • Bahave violent to partner/person("other man")
    • Important to differentiate b/w reality and delusion
    • VERY dangerous disorder
  43. Persecutory Type
    • *Delusional Disorder
    • Non-bizarre delusions
    • Believe harassed/obstructed in pursuit of long-term goals
    • Feels goals are being blocked
    • Try resolve legitimately-->No results (because it is a delusion)-->Violence
  44. Intermittent Explosive Disorder
    • Rare
    • 1. a disorder that may begin in early childhood, or following head injury at any age, characterized by repeated acts of violent, aggressive behavior in otherwise normal persons that is markedly out of proportion to the event that provokes it.2. a DSM diagnosis that is established when the specified criteria are met.
  45. Battered Woman Syndrome
    Bred from PTSD