Labor and Birth (Parturition)

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Author:
BenWood
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268628
Filename:
Labor and Birth (Parturition)
Updated:
2014-03-31 15:18:41
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human reproduction
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Description:
Chapter 11
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  1. The ___ in O2 levels stimulates placenta and fetus to release ____.
    decrease: CRH
  2. The ___ in CO2 levels stimulates placenta and fetus to release ____.
    increase: CRH
  3. CRH stands for: ___ ___ ___
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone
  4. CRH stimulates fetal pituitary to release ____
    ACTH
  5. CRH stimulates fetal adrenal gland to produce ___.
    cortisol.
  6. CRH intiates ____ (birth).
    Paturition
  7. ACTH stimulates fetal adrenal gland to release ___.
    cortisol.
  8. CRH stimulates the ___ ___ to release ACTH.
    fetal pituitary
  9. CRH stimulates ___ ___ ___ to produce cortisol.
    fetal adrenal gland
  10. ACTH stimulates ___ ___ ___ to release cortisol.
    fetal adrenal gland
  11. Cortisol stimulates fetal lungs to produce ___ .
    surfactant.
  12. Surfactant is produced when cortisol stimulates the ___ ___.
    fetal lungs.
  13. hPGH stands for ___ ___ ___ ___.
    human placental growth hormone.
  14. hPL stands for ___ ___ ___.
    human placental lactogen
  15. hPGH and hPL promotes & regulates ____ growth.
    fetal
  16. hPGH and hPL regulates maternal and fetal ___ utilization.
    energy
  17. Prolactin and hPL prepare mammary glands for ___ production.
    milk
  18. Relaxin relaxes ___ ___.
    pubic symphysis.
  19. Prolactin and hPL prepare ____ ____ for milk production.
    mammary glands
  20. Cortisol is important in promoting final ____ maturation in the ____ prior to birth.
    organ: fetus
  21. release of ACTH from ____ pituitary induces fetal zone to release ____.
    fetal; cortisol
  22. Cortisol flows back into the fetal zone hrough the ____ and ____ ____.
    placenta; umbilical chord.
  23. Cortisol release stimulates ___ lungs to produce surfactant.
    fetal
  24. Diagram of whatever the fuck is going on.
  25. DHEAS is converted by placenta into ___.
    estriol.
  26. Estriol level increases dramatically
  27. Increases in estriol stimulates ___-___ contractions (false labor)
    Braxton-Hicks
  28. Increased estriol stimulates formation of ____ receptors on myometrium.
    oxytocin
  29. Increased estriol stimulates the release of oxytocin from ___and ___ ___ ___.
    maternal and fetal posterior pituitary.
  30. oxytocin (fetal ejection reflex) stimulates regular contractions of ___ (true labor).
    myometrium
  31. Oxytocin stimulates placenta to release ___.
    prostaglandins.
  32. Prostaglandins soften ___ causing it to dilate.
    cervix
  33. Prostaglandins stimulate more vigorous ___ of myometrium.
    contractions.
  34. Prostaglandins initiates a positive ____ loop (increases oxytocin and prostaglandin release).
    feedback
  35. Process of giving birth consists of ___ stages.
    four
  36. Dilation stage begins with onset of regular ___ contractions (<10 minutes apart)
    uterine.
  37. Dilation stage ends when ___ is full dilated.
    cervix
  38. Cervix is fully dilated at ~___ inches
    4
  39. The ___ sac ruptures during the dilation stage.
    amniotic
  40. Longest part of labor is ___ - ___ hours.
    7-12
  41. Expulsion stage begins when ___ is full dilated.
    cervix
  42. Expulsion stage ends with ___ of ____.
    birth;infant
  43. Contractions occur every ___ - ___ minutes.
    2-3
  44. During the expulsion stage there is an urge to ___.
    push
  45. Normal delivery is ___ first and face ___.
    head; down
  46. A feet first delivery is called a ___.
    Breech
  47. The ___ ___ is clamped and cut.
    umbilical cord
  48. duration of expulsion stage is ~ ___ hour(s) in 1st birth; and ___ minutes in subsequent births.
    1; 20
  49. ___ is an injection of local anesthetic into epidural space of the spine in the lumbar region (L3/4 or L4/5) to numb the uterus.
    Epidural
  50. Delivery through a surgical incision made through the abdominal and uterine walls is a ____ ____.
    cesarean section.
  51. An incisioninto the perinium or skin between the vagina and anus is an ____.
    episiotomy.
  52. The purpose of an episiotomy is to enlarge the ___ opening.
    vaginal
  53. Expulsion of the placental and fetal membranes occurs during the ____ stage.
    placental.
  54. To prevent postpartum bleeding, all ___ must be removed.
    fragments.
  55. ____ (blood clot) separates placenta from uterine wall
    Hematoma
  56. The umbilical cord should contain ___ arteries and ___ vein.
    2;1
  57. Duration of the placental stage is ~___ minutes.
    15
  58. ____ stage begins after expulsion of placenta.
    Recovery
  59. ___ returns to the pre-pregnancy form.
    Uterus
  60. Uterine arteries ___ during the recovery stage.
    constrict
  61. The recovery stage last ___-___ hours.
    2-3
  62. Fraternal (dizygotic) twins occur when two 2dary ___ are fertilized b separate sperm
    oocytes
  63. Fraternal twins are caused b genetic disposition for multiple ___.
    ovulations
  64. ____ twins occur when one 2dary oocytes fertilized b one sperm. (actual cause is unknown)
    Identical
  65. Identical twins occur in 3/____ births
    1000.
  66. ___ twins are more common than ___ twins.
    Fraternal; identical

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