Exam III. 3 (Hornworts)

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  1. Explain the structure
    • a.      Look more like liverworts than mosses, but the sporophyte is more elongated
    •                                                               i.      A small stalk and a very long sporangium
    •                                                             ii.      Look a bit like horns, but where they really got their name is from where the capsule opens upà opens up in half; they kind of twist
    •                                                           iii.      The liverwort looks like your liver
  2. What is the most economically important hornwort?
    Sphagnum moss
  3. Sphagnum moss: 
    1) __
    2) Structure of sporophyte
    3) Location?
    •                                                               i.      Sporophyte has same basic structure: stalk, sporophyte, capsule
    •                                                             ii.      Location: common component of bogs
    • 1.      You can find it in boggy areas; not uncommon at all
    • 2.      Pitcher plants can also be found in bogs (carnivorous plnat)
  4. What is the advantage of collecting insects the way it does
    • a.      Advantage of collecting insects this way: supply nitrogen since bogs are nutrient poor, especially when it comes to nitrogen
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Feeds by having sweet smelling juice that gets an insect stuck; can’t break free; surrenders
  5. Importance of Sphagnum moss
    • 1) use of peat (lowest grade of coal)
    • 2) good for shipping plants
    • 3) gives scotch distinctive flavor (used for whiskey)
  6. Use of peat: formation
    • a.      The first step in the production of coal
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Partially decayed plant material; put it under a lot of pressure; end up with coal
    • 1.      Can come from Spahgnumà plant decomposes
  7. Peat in gardens
    • a.      Peat moss used in gardens
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Sphagnum plants will absorb a tremendous amount of water
    • 1.      Contains hyaline cells that will hang on to water
    • a.      Add peat moss to soil, which will allow soil to retain water
  8. Good for shipping plants
    1.      Good for shipping plants; they wrap the roots in sphagnum to enable the retention of water
  9. Gives scotch its distinctive flavor--> used for whiskey
    • 1.      Gives scotch its distinctive flavorà used for whiskey
    • a.      The way Sphagnum takes up minerals is by the exchange of H+ ions for cations
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Example: release hydrogen and be able to take up calcium
  10. Environments containing sphagnum
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Wherever sphagnum is growing, the environment is acidic because of the release of H+à very little decomposition
    • 1.      Sphagnum will prevent decomposing organisms, such as bacteria or fungi, to grow
    • a.      Anything in the peat bed won’t decompose very well
  11. 1950s
    a.      In the 1950s, there were two men in Denmark out cutting peat for fuel. What they dug up was a body. The body was 2000 years old and hadn’t decomposed because of the peat moss
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Exam III. 3 (Hornworts)
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