Exam III. 4 (Ferns)
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a. Dominant part is the __and has __
i. May not produce __but it depends on __
b. One of basic differences between bryophytes and other plants is __
- xylem and phloem
- the plant that produces it
- bryophytes lack vascular tissue
a. Life Cycle of a Typical Fern:
Spore produced by __ where?-> __--> structure
that is what?--> instead of just dividing in one plane, they do what, producing what? (__); what shape and color
- __inside a sporangium
- is reminiscent of a green alga (single chain of cells that has rhizoids coming off of it= called protonema)
- divide in a second plane, producing a sheet of cells
- mature gametophyte
- heart shaped that is photosynthetic (green)
1. Usually produces both __ and __ (location of each)
a. Possible for __; but, this is often prevented because __
i. Archegonium is __than bryophytes
ii. Sperm swims from __ to __
- archegonia and antheridia
- antheridia usually below and archegonia in the center
- they don’t mature at the same time
- antheridia to the archegonia
a. Archegonia and antheridia are produced on the __, allowing for what?
- the gametophyte to be right on the surface of the soil, allowing water to be between the soil and the gametophyte
a. 11,000 species of ferns; much larger group; about ¾ are __
i. People associate ferns with __
ii. ¼ are __
1. Maybe __species of ferns that are native to the US
2. Used as __a lot
3. Like __ and a cold house in the winter is not good for it
- tropical areas
- humid places
As a group, they vary a lot in size. There are how many extremes and what are they?
- i. Azolla: an aquatic fern (smaller than a finger)
- ii. Tree ferns: large (definitely tropical; size of small trees)
- iii. Most other ferns fall in between
What is the dominant part?
- i. The dominant part seen in these pictures are sporophytes
- ii. THE DOMINANT PART WILL BE THE SPOROPHYTE
Explain their vascularity.
- a. Have true stems, true leaves, and true roots because the definition of true is that it has vascular tissue
- b. They usually have horizontal underground stems
- i. Usually, all you see are the leaves and the rest is underground
- 1. There are horizontal underground stems, called rhizomes, NOT RHIZOIDS
i. Ferns are unique in that they have __(not just ferns have this, but, what makes them unique is that ferns have coiling to a large extent)
1. The process that produces it is called __
a. As a young leaf is developing, what happens?
- circinate vernation
- one grows faster than the other
Explain the growth.
i. If one side grows faster than the other, there will be bending on the side that grows rapidly; the upperside grows slower than the underside until adulthood, when the upperside speeds up
What is the advantage of coiling?
What is the stem usually covered by?
- 1. Advantage of coiling: protection of the upper surface of the leaf
- 2. The stem is usually covered by small, brown, scalelike leveaves
a. On any leaf, expanded portion is the __
i. How does the blade vary?
1. There are a lot of leaves whose blades are what?
a. The more divisions, the more __they appear
- Different degrees on how that blade is dissected into smaller parts
- not dissected at all
a. In a typical fern, you find the sporangia on the __
i. Typical lifestyle of __
1. Typical sporophyte with __, etc
a. For a lot of ferns, any one of the fronds can do what?
i. Sometimes, that’s not the case
1. Sometimes, only what?
- underside of the frond (leaves)
- homosporous (one type of spore) fern
- frond, fiddlehead, rhizome, roots,
- produce spores in sporangia
- a portion will produce a spore
a. Diplobiontic life cycles
i. sporesà gametophyte (result of this where gametophyte prdouces both sperm and eggs)à produces antheridia and archogoniaà produce eggs and spermà fertilizationà zygoteà sporophyte
Explain the coloring
- a. Patches of brown on the underside of the leaf is a common color
- i. Sorus: collection of sporangia that may appear brown in color
a. Cells inside sporangium divide by __to produce __
i. Typical sporangium shaped a lot like your head (explain what this means)
2. If you start out with a whole row of cells, when they lose water, the cells become __
a. Causes __ together
b. Wall cells are very __; what can happen?
- One single layer of cells that has a really thick wall that starts about, where your nose would be, and will become like a Mohawk
- super narrow
- water cal go through them
i. As the cells get shorter what happens?
1. As the annulus gets shorter, what happens/
2. As they lose water, what happens?
- the other cells get shorter eventually open up
- it gets pulled back; they have a tendency for fall apart
- they get narrower and narrower but have spring to them and want to the spring back
a. The force for them to __ is more than the molecule
i. Acts as a __
1. It does what?
2. What disperses them
- swing back
- throws the spores out
i. Wall looks __ color
1. Spores are unusually __
ii. If a spore lands on a male gametophyte, or vice versa, __
iv. Embryo (contains __)
- reddish or rusty under
- FERTILIZATION (IDK, MAYBE)
- foot, root; rhizomes
a. Sometimes there is a covering
i. The sporangium are called __: used for what?
i. May be along the __
- False indusium
- edGe of the leaf
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