Ch11T3-5.txt

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aphy101
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268657
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Ch11T3-5.txt
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2014-04-11 18:19:14
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Ch 11 Topics 3-5 - Spinal Cord
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  1. A slender column of nervous tissue that is continuous with the brain and originates at the foramen magnum, and extends downward through the vertebral canal, and ends between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae.
    Spinal Cord
  2. The spinal cord consists of 31 segments, each of which gives rise to _____, which branch to various body parts and connect them to the CNS.
    Spinal Nerves
  3. Myelinated axons in the spinal cord that surround a mass of unmyelinated axons.
    White Matter
  4. Unmyelinated axons in the spinal cord surrounded by masses of myelinated axons.
    Gray Matter
  5. Runs through the center of the gray commissure down the entire length of the spinal cord, and contains CSF.
    Central Canal
  6. Groups of myelinated nerve fibers in the anterior, posterior, and lateral funiculi of the white matter.
    Nerve Tracts
  7. What are the two main functions of the spinal cord?
    1) A center for spinal reflexes 2) A conduit for impulses to and from the brain
  8. Automatic responses to changes (stimuli) inside or outside the body; they help to maintain homeostasis by controlling involuntary processes like heart rate, breathing rate, etc.
    Reflexes
  9. Basic components of a reflex; begins with a receptor at the end of the dendrites of a sensory neuron, which leads to interneurons in the CNS that process stimuli, then communicate to motor neurons whose fibers pass to effectors.
    Reflex Arc
  10. List the five structures of a reflex arc in order.
    1) Receptor 2) Sensory Neuron 3) Interneuron 4) Motor Neuron 5) Effector
  11. Part of a reflex arc at the end of a dendrite that detects a change inside or outside the body.
    Receptor
  12. Part of a reflex arc that conducts an impulse from the receptor into the brain or spinal cord.
    Sensory Neuron
  13. Part of a reflex arc that serves as a processing center; conducts an impulse from the sensory neuron to its synapse with a motor neuron.
    Interneuron
  14. Part of a reflex arc that conducts an impulse from the brain or spinal cord out to the synapse with an effector.
    Motor Neuron
  15. Part of a reflex arc that is a muscle or gland that responds to stimulation by the motor neuron and produces the reflex or behavioral action.
    Effector
  16. List the three basic types of skeletal muscle reflexes.
    1) Knee-jerk Reflex 2) Withdrawal Reflex 3) Crossed Extensor Reflex
  17. A reflex that helps maintain posture; is a simple monosynaptic reflex because it only uses two neurons.
    Knee-jerk Reflex
  18. Describe how a knee-jerk reflex works.
    When the patellar tendon is struck, the quadriceps muscle is pulled, stimulating stretch receptors to generate a nervous impulse that enters the spinal cord on an axon, which synapses with a motor neuron, whose axon synapses with the quadriceps muscle that responds by contracting
  19. A reflex that reacts when a person touches something painful; is protective because it prevents or limits tissue damage when a body part touches something potentially harmful.
    Withdrawal Reflex
  20. Describe how a withdrawal reflex works.
    The muscles on the affected side contract, flexor muscles on the unaffected side are inhibited, and the extensor muscles on the unaffected side contract, helping to support the body weight that has been shifted
  21. A reflex that occurs at the end of a withdrawal reflex that allows sensory impulses arriving one side of the spinal cord to pass across to the other side and produce an opposite effect; is due to interneuron pathways within the reflex center of the spinal cord.
    Crossed Extensor Reflex
  22. Spinal tracts that conduct sensory impulses to the brain.
    Ascending Tracts
  23. List the 3 major ascending tracts of the spinal cord.
    1) Fasciculus Gracilis and Fasciculus Cuneatus 2) Spinothalamic Tracts 3) Spinocerebellar Tracts
  24. The spinal tracts that conduct sensory impulses associated with the senses of touch, pressure, and body movement from skin, muscles, tendons, and joints to the brain.
    Fasciculus Gracilis and Fasciculus Cuneatus
  25. The spinal tracts that conduct sensory impulses related to sensations of pain and touch from various body regions to the brain.
    Spinothalamic Tracts (Lateral = pain and temperature, Anterior = touch and pressure)
  26. The spinal tracts that conduct sensory impulses required for muscle coordination from the muscles of the lower limbs and trunk to the cerebellum.
    Spinocerebellar Tracts
  27. Spinal tracts that conduct motor impulses away from the brain to the effectors.
    Descending Tracts
  28. List the 3 major descending tracts of the spinal cord.
    1) Corticospinal Tracts 2) Reticulospinal Tracts 3) Rubrospinal Tracts
  29. The spinal tracts that conduct motor impulses associated with voluntary movements from the brain to skeletal muscles.
    Corticospinal Tracts
  30. The spinal tracts that conduct motor impulses that control muscular tone and the activity of sweat glands from the brain.
    Reticulospinal Tracts
  31. The spinal tracts that conduct motor impulses that coordinate muscles and control posture from the brain.
    Rubrospinal Tracts
  32. The corticospinal tracts are sometimes called ______ after the shaped regions in the medulla oblongata through which they pass.
    Pyramidal Tracts
  33. What type of descending tracts are direct tracts that communicate directly with muscles for conscious skilled movements?
    Pyramidal Tracts
  34. The reticulospinal and rubrospinal tracts are called ______ after the shaped regions through which they pass.
    Extrapyramidal Tracts
  35. What type of descending tracts are indirect tracts that communicate indirectly with muscles for unconscious movements?
    Extrapyramidal Tracts

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