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the recognized violation of cultural norms
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behaviors
criminal justice system?
the organizations- police, courts, and prison officials- that respond to alleged violation of the law
the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
medicaliazation of deviance?
the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
a business supplying illegal goods or services
a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant's guilty plea
an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime
the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution
later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls
Durkheim claimed that deviance is a normal element of society that (4):
- affirms cultural norms and values
- clarifies moral boundaries
- brings people together
- encourages social change
_________'s ________ theory explains deviance in terms of a society's cultural goals that the means available to achieve them .
What are the types of theories explaining Deviance? (3)
- Biological theories
- Psychological theories
- Sociological theories
Biological theories? (2)
- focus on individual abnormality
- explain human behavior as the result of biological instincts
Psychological theories? (2)
- focuses on individual abnormality
- see deviance as the result of "unsuccessful socialization"
__________ claimed that criminal have apelike physical traits; later research links criminal behavior to certain body types and genetics.
Sociological theories? (3)
- what is deviant varies from place to place according to cultural norms
- behavior and individuals become deviant as others define them that way
- what and who a society defines as deviant reflect who has and does not have social power
What are the symbolic-interaction theories? (4)
- labeling theory
- medicalization of deviance
- Sutherland's differential association theory
- Hirschi's control theory
Hirschi's control theory?
states that imagining the possible consequences of deviance often discourages such behavior. People who are well integrate into society are less likely to engage in deviant behavior.
About _____% of people arrested for property crimes and ______% of people arrested for violent crimes are ______.
Official statistics show that arrest rates peak in late __________ and drop steadily with age.
______ crime is more common among people of lower social position.
More _____ than African Americans are arrested for street crimes. However African Americans are arrested more than _____ in relation to their population size.
______ Americans have a lower-than-average rate of arrest.
crimes against the person?
crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others; also known as violent crimes
crimes against property?
crimes that involve theft of money or property belonging to others; also known as property crimes
violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
By _____ standards, the U.S. crime rate is high.
The police maintain public order by _______ the law.
What are the four justifications for punishment?
- societal protection