US History Exam II

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  1. * Ottawas, Hurons and other Indians besieged Detroit then a major British military outpost for intruding on Indian lands

    * London issued proclamation prohibiting further colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mountains

    * land now reserved for Indians and cannot be sold to individuals

    * Brit gov wanted to avoid border conflicts

    * George Washington ignored proclamation and ordered secret sales of Indian land

    * Proclamation exacerbated settler-Indian relations
    Proclamation line of 1763
  2. * Articles written by English Whigs (Country Party)

    * Very popular in America

    * Warning against constant tendency of political power to infringe upon liberty

    * beware ambition, power, etc...leads to corruption * by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon
    “Cato’s Letters”
  3. * shoemaker who fought against the French in Seven Year's War

    * led riots opposing Stamp Tax

    * arrested after Hutchinson's home was destroyed by riot

    * released by Royal Nine; merchants and craftsman leading opposition
    Ebenezer Mackintosh
  4. Parliament claims they represent everyone even those who do not vote
    “Virtual Representation”
  5. Parliament declares they have the right to make laws and statutes for the colonies
    Declaratory Act
  6. * member of Sons Rebellion

    * involved in Boston Massacre

    * voted for Independence for Massachusetts

    * cousin for John Adams
    Samuel Adams
  7. * Charles Townshend; chancellor of Exchequer

    * import tax on tea, paint, lead glass

    * established Board of Customs Commissioners and colonial vice-admiralty courts

    * repealed, except tax on tea
    Townshend Duties
  8. * advocate for independence

    * felt Pennsylvania's constitution was too democratic

    * forces Congress to send Olive Branch Petition

    * lawyer from Pennsylvania

    * Leader of Stamp Act protests

    * Does not vote for independence in congress
    John Dickinson
  9. * member of Sons of Liberty

    * wealthiest member

    * was President of Congress for a while during the Articles of Confederation
    John Hancock
  10. * Clash between British soldiers and Boston mob; 5 colonists were killed

    * giving British soldiers stationed there a hard time

    * Americans don't want to pay for the soldiers there

    * Paul Revere calls it Massacre to circulate propaganda
    Boston Massacre
  11. * patriots leading opposition to the Stamp Tax

    * Sam Adams
    Sons of Liberty
  12. * British march into Concord to confiscate gun powder possessed by Americans

    * Some 49 Americans were killed; 73 killed in Royal Army

    * Considered the beginning of the revolution

    * Paul Revere rode around and shouted that the regulars were coming out

    * skirmish took place in Lexington first (accidental shooting) and again at Concord 
    Concord and Lexington
  13. * petition to George III reaffirming Americans' loyalty to the crown

    * hoped for "permanent reconciliation"

    * wanted to return to the way before Stamp Act
    Olive Branch Petition
  14. * Sons of Liberty member

    * exaggerates Boston Massacre for Porpaganda

    * informs colonists of British Soldiers arrival at Concord
    Paul Revere
  15. * British Governor of Virginia

    * tries to recruit slaves to fight for the British
    Lord Dunmore
  16. * written by Thomas Paine
    ----- writes for common readers
    -----intellectual vernacular

    * pamphlet supporting American independence

    * attack on Constitution of England, hereditary rule and monarchical government
    Common Sense
  17. * helps tie French alliance

    * diplomat from Pennsylvania sent to France as diplomat

    * renaissance man who discovered electrical polarity
    Benjamin Franklin
  18. Why was the Stamp Act considered to be illegal? What methods did the Americans use to oppose the tax?   What was the result?
    Stamp Act 1764

    • ---* First direct tax from Parliament
    • ---* taxed cards, dive, books, newspaper, legal documents
    • ---* Americans refuse to pay the tax
    • ---* Americans riot
    • ---* Repealed later

    Declaratory Act

    • ---* after Stamp Act Parliament declares they have the right to make laws and statutes for the colonies
    • ---* Americans want to actually vote
  19. Why did Tea become a central issue in British-American relations? (3 parts) What happened?
    • Townshend Duties
    • ---* Charles Townshend; chancellor of Exchequer
    • ---* import tax on tea, paint, lead glass
    • ---* established Board of Customs Commissioners and colonial vice-admiralty courts
    • ---* repealed, except tax on tea

    Tea Act 1773

    • ---* reduces the cost of tea (despite tax) but give monopoly to British East India Co. to sell in America
    • ---* East India Co. needs trade advantage

    Tea Party

    • ---* event know a group of Americans threw more than 300 chests tea into the ocean
    • ---* group were disguised as Indians
  20. What was the purpose of the “Coercive Acts?”  What did they stipulate?
    Coercive Acts

    • * punishment to Americans to retrieve money lost from the Boston Tea Party
    • * parliament closed the port of Boston until tea was paid
    • * Parliament empowered military commanders to lodge soldiers in private homes
    • * New Quatering Act
    • * Administration of Justice Act
    • * Parliament enacted Quebec Act; granted legal toleration to the Roman Catholic Church in Canada
  21. Breed's Hill battle

    British soldiers battle to capture the fort on hill
    Bunker Hill
  22. * Shows up in the Continental Congress/Association

    * appointed to arrange the militia of Americans

    * later, he would advocate for the prohibition of slavery

    * First President of U.S.A.
    George Washington
  23. * Member of Sons of Liberty

    * advocate for Independence

    * defended the British soldiers in the Boston Massacre

    * Encourage Thomas Paine to write the Declaration of Independence

    * Was vice-president during Washington's presidency

    * Became second president of the United States after Washington
    John Adams
  24. * member of the Sons of Liberty

    * Became secretary of State during Washington's presidency

    * Leader of Jeffersonians

    * Became Vice-President during John Adams presidency
    Thomas Jefferson
  25. * Sir William Howe had pushed Washington's army across the East River

    * Washington's army dwindled to less than 3000

    * Washington restored morale by launching successful surprise attacks on Hessian soldiers at this town in New Jersey
    Trenton, Battle of
  26. * a series of measures approved by Congress during 1780s

    * drafted by Thomas Jefferson

    * established self-government for the West

    * No slaves in the new states: Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio
    Northwest Ordinance
  27. * upstate New York

    * Major defeat of British general John Burgoyne

    * more than 5000 British troops at this town in New York

    * the French allied with Americans to fight the British
  28. * symbol of French ally; most trustworthy

    * fought at Washington's side in War of Independence

    * becomes general in American Army
  29. * group that retained allegiance to the crown

    * 20-25% of population belonged to this group

    * most numerous in New York
  30. * Mohawk Indian

    * hoped to create an Indian confederacy lying between Canada and U.S.

    * sided with British
    Joseph Brant
  31. General who led attack on Lord Charles Cornwallis (Brit commander in the South)
    Nathanael Greene
  32. * British encampment in Virginia under Lord Cornwallis

    * last big battle of the war

    * Washington rushed his troops to block British escape by land (augmented by French troops led by Marquis de Lafayette)

    * French fleet blocks entrance to the Chesapeake bay preventing Brit fleets from resupplying Cornwallis
  33. * 85 essays that explain the constitution or message to encourage the public support

    * Authors:  Hamilton, Madison, Jay

    * Federalist #10 was most important: called for factions
    Federalists Papers
  34. according to the original constitution, this part of government gets to elect the president
    Electoral College
  35. Describe the governing document first used by the United States after declaring independence? What problems did it have?  Who supported it and why?
    • Articles of Confederation
    • ---* very week federal government
    • ---* most power were given to states
    • ---* One house; unicameral
    • ---* Each state can only get one vote
    • ---* Federal government can declare war and regulate foreign affairs
    • ---* States can tax and draft soldiers
    • ---* No president to enforce laws; only president of Congress
    • ---* no judiciary branch to interpret law; no checks and balances


    • ---* opposed to Federal power
    • ---* feared a powerful central government
    • ---* supported Articles of Confederation
  36. Explain the causes of Shay’s Rebellion and how it turned out?  What was the significance?
    Shay's Rebellion 1786

    • ---* Western Massachusetts
    • ---* debt-ridden farmers closed courts to prevent the seizure of their land for failure to pay taxes
    • ---* called "regulators"
    • ---* farmers want "stay laws"
    • ---* citizens take up arms; seize a federal armory
    • ---* led by Daniel Shays; vet of War of Independence
    • ---* Governor James Bowdoin dispatched army to arrest 1000 and disperse crowd

    • Significance
    • ---* stronger federal government
    • ---* we need new constitution

    • Opinions
    • ---* Thomas Jefferson: a little rebellion here and there is good
    • ---* James Madison: liberty may be endangered by the abuse of liberty and power
  37. Explain the two major compromises necessary in order to achieve ratification of the Constitution.
    • The Great Compromise
    • * populous states receive more representatives, but all states receive 2 senators each

    Other compromises

    * slave states count 3/5 of their slaves as population

    * fugitive slave clause, 3/5 clause, and electoral college
  38. Who were the authors of the Federalist Papers? What was their purpose? What problem was Federalist 10 meant to solve and how did it do that?
    * Authors: Hamilton, Madison and Jay all under pen name Publius

    * rather than posing a danger to American liberty, the Constitution protected it

    * Government was an expression of freedom with checks and balances

    * the goal was to persuade the public to accept the Constitution

    * The problem was faction

    * examples: Ancient Greeks fell apart due to factions

    * votes could sway one way due to factions (a concern)
  39. * started tax rebellion

    * tax considered as repugnant to liberty

    * Washing sent 13,000 militia to suppress rebellion
    Whiskey Rebellion
  40. * won victory over the Indians

    * called Fallen Timbers

    * makes it safe for Americans to move to Ohio
    Mad Anthony Wayne
  41. * French envoy seeking support for French Revolution

    * Washington administration recalled his effort and claimed to be neutral

    * later stayed in American and married daughter of George Clinton
    Citizen Genet
  42. * John Jay negotiated an agreement in 1794: contained no British concessions on impressment nor the rights of American shipping

    * treaty canceled the American-French alliance and recognize British economic and naval supremacy
    The Jay Treaty
  43. * American diplomats are sent to France to negotiate a treaty to replace the old alliance

    * French wanted to bribes before proceedings
    XYZ affair
  44. * ran as vice-president with Jefferson's campaign for presidency

    * ran as president in 1800; conflict with Jefferson's campaign when they tied

    * House of Reps had no majority for either

    * Hamilton intervened and supported Jefferson and tipped the balance

    * Later, started a militia to form a new nation in the West from unclaimed land

    * He killed Hamilton in a duel years later
    Aaron Burr
  45. * 1798: created animosity against the French due to Jay Treaty

    * war at sea between ships
    Quasi War
  46. * general during Adams presidency

    * wanted to keep rebels in form

    * he dreams of empire
    Alexander Hamilton
  47. * allowed the deportation of persons from abroad deemed "dangerous" by federal authorities

    * Alien Act--extended naturalization period from 5 to 14 years; president can deport aliens during war

    * Sedition Act--prison terms for those who bring government into disrepute (false, seditious, scandalous speech)
    Alien and Sedition Acts
  48. * Jeffersonian
    *Same ideals as T. Jefferson
    James Madison
  49. * Judicial review case; to declare law unconstitutional
    * under Justice John Marshall
    Marbury v. Madison
  50. Justice during the Marbury v. Madison case
    John Marshall
  51. *President Jefferson purchased the territory from France

    *west of Mississippi all the way south to Mexico
    Louisiana Purchase
  52. * Republican campaign: Jefferson and Liberty

    * Republicans had developed effective techniques for mobilizing voters

    * constitutional crisis between two running mates tied for presidency
    “The Revolution of 1800”
  53. Describe the political agenda of the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans (Jeffersonians)
    • Federalists
    • -Hamilton (Treasury of Secretary)
    • -Washington (President of US)
    • -John Adams
    • -Bank of US: Assume state debts, issue bonds, establish credit
    • -Tariff, excise whiskey
    • -National Army
    • -Subsidies for Manufacturing
    • -British Model
    • -Traditional style for government, like title, coach...cape?

    • Democratic Republicans (Jeffersonians)
    • -Jefferson (Sec. of State)
    • -James Madison
    • -State Banks
    • -Tariffs only
    • -Citizen soldiers/militia
    • -Nation of farmers to produce for the world (farmers are good citizens)
    • -Free Trade
    • -Sympathy to France
    • -Republican style of simplicity

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US History Exam II
2014-04-02 06:35:26

US History Exam II for SCC
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