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What are P waves?
These are longitudinal waves meaning that they oscillate in the same direction as the wave's travel. They can travel through solids and liquids.
What are S waves?
These waves are tranverse waves meaning that they oscillate at 90o to the direction of travel. These waves only travel through solids.
What is the structure of the earth?
The earth consists of four layers; crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.
How do we know the structure of the earth?
We know the structure of the earth because P waves can travel through the earth but S waves can't. This suggests that part of the earths structure is liquid.
What is refraction?
This is when light changes direction through two different optically dense media.
What are the two types of waves?
- Transverse (oscillates at 900 to direction of travel).
- Longitudinal (oscillates in the direction of travel).
What is total internal refraction?
- This is when light enters a material past it's critical angle it totally internal reflects within it.
What is lag time and how is it used?
- lag time is the difference in time between the arrival of p-waves and s-waves.
- P-waves arrive first
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