Cog Psy

Card Set Information

Author:
eddardofwinter
ID:
268773
Filename:
Cog Psy
Updated:
2014-04-01 11:36:32
Tags:
Psy
Folders:
school
Description:
vocab
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user eddardofwinter on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. A process by which learning can occur in a connectionist network, in which an error signal is transmitted backward through the network. This backward–transmitted error signal provides the information needed to adjust the weights in the network to achieve the correct output signal for a stimulus.
    Back propagation
  2. In Rosch’s categorization scheme, the level below the global (superordinate) level (e.g., “table” or “chair” for the superordinate category “furniture”). According to Rosch, the basic level is psychologically special because it is the level above which much information is lost and below which little is gained. See also Global (superordinate) level; Specific (subordinate) level.
    Basic level
  3. The process by which objects are placed in categories.
    Categorization
  4. Groups of objects that belong together because they belong to the same class of objects, such as “houses,” “furniture,” or “schools.”
    Category
  5. A result of brain damage in which the patient has trouble recognizing objects in a specific category.
    Category–specific knowledge impairment
  6. A feature of some semantic network models in which properties of a category that are shared by many members of a category are stored at a higher level node in the network. For example, the property “can fly” would be stored at the node for “bird” rather than at the node for “canary.”
    Cognitive economy
  7. A mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions, including memory, reasoning, and using and understanding language. An example of a concept would be the way a person mentally represents “cat” or “house.”
    Concept
  8. In connectionist models, a connection weight determines the degree to which signals sent from one unit either increase or decrease the activity of the next unit.
    Connection weight
  9. A network model of mental operation that proposes that concepts are represented in networks that are modeled after neural networks. This approach to describing the mental representation of concepts is also called the parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach. See also Connectionist network.
    Connectionism
  10. The type of network proposed by the connectionist approach to the representation of concepts. Connectionist networks are based on neural networks, but are not necessarily identical to them. One of the key properties of a connectionist network is that a specific category is represented by activity that is distributed over many units in the network. This contrasts with semantic networks, in which specific categories are represented at individual nodes.
    Connectionist network
  11. The idea that we can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether the object meets the definition of the category. See also Family resemblance.
    Definitional approach to categorization
  12. During learning in a connectionist network, the difference between the output signal generated by a particular stimulus and the output that actually represents that stimulus.
    Error signal
  13. In categorization, members of a category that a person has experienced in the past.
    Exemplar
  14. The approach to categorization in which members of a category are judged against exemplars, examples of members of the category that the person has encountered in the past.
    Exemplar approach to categorization
  15. In considering the process of categorization, the idea that things in a particular category resemble each other in a number of ways. This approach can be contrasted with the definitional approach, which states that an object belongs to a category only when it meets a definite set of criteria.
    Family resemblance
  16. The highest level in Rosch’s categorization scheme (e.g., “furniture” or “vehicles”). See also Basic level; Specific (subordinate) level.
    Global (superordinate) level
  17. Disruption of performance due to damage to a system that occurs only gradually as parts of the system are damaged. This occurs in some cases of brain damage and also when parts of a connectionist network are damaged.
    Graceful degradation
  18. Units in a connectionist network that are located between input units and output units. See also Connectionist network; Input units; Output units.
    Hidden units
  19. As applied to network models of knowledge representation, a model that consists of levels arranged so that more specific concepts, like canary or salmon, are at the bottom and more general concepts, such as bird, fish, or animal, are at higher levels.
    Hierarchical model
  20. Organization of categories in which larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories. These smaller categories can, in turn, be divided into even more specific categories to create a number of levels.
    Hierarchical organization
  21. A category member that closely resembles the category prototype. See alsoPrototypicality.
    High prototypicality
  22. Units in a connectionist network that are activated by stimulation from the environment. See also Connectionist network; Hidden units; Output units.
    Input units
  23. A procedure in which a person is asked to decide as quickly as possible whether a particular stimulus is a word or a nonword.
    Lexical decision task
  24. A category member that does not closely resemble the category prototype. See alsoPrototypicality.
    Low prototypicality
  25. Units in a connectionist network that contain the final output of the network. See alsoConnectionist network; Hidden units; Input units.
    Output units
  26. A network model of mental operation that proposes that concepts are represented in networks that are modeled after neural networks. This approach to describing the mental representation of concepts is also called the parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach. See also Connectionist network. see also Connectionist network.
    Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
  27. A standard used in categorization that is formed by averaging the category members a person has encountered in the past.
    Prototype
  28. The idea that we decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether it is similar to a standard representation of the category, called a prototype.
    Prototype approach to categorization
  29. The degree to which a particular member of a category matches the prototype for that category. See also High prototypicality; Low prototypicality.
    Prototypicality
  30. The approach to understanding how concepts are organized in the mind that proposes that concepts are arranged in networks.
    Semantic network approach
  31. A technique in which the participant is asked to indicate whether a particular sentence is true or false. For example, sentences like “An apple is a fruit” have been used in studies on categorization.
    Sentence verification technique
  32. The level in Rosch’s categorization scheme that is a level below the basic level (e.g., “kitchen table” for the basic category “table”). See also Basic level; Global (superordinate) level.
    Specific (subordinate) level
  33. Activity that spreads out along any link in a network that is connected to an activated node.
    Spreading activation
  34. The ability to judge the truth or falsity of sentences involving high–prototypical members of a category more rapidly than sentences involving low–prototypical members of a category. See also Sentence verification technique.
    Typicality effect
  35. “Neuronlike processing units” in a connectionist network. See also Hidden units; Input units; Output units.
    Units

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview