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DEFINE ANABOLIC AND CATABOLIC
- A ANABOLIC
- B BUILD
- C CATABOLIC
- D DOWN AS IN BREAK DOWN
FOUR BASIC ORGANIC MARCO-MOLECULES PRODUCED BY ANABOLIC REACTIONS.
- CARBOHYDRATES (POLYSACCHARIDES)
- NUCLEIC ACID
THE FOUR BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS INVOLVED IN CATABOLIC REACTIONS ARE....
- MONOSACCHARIDES (GLUCOSE)
- AMINO ACIDS
- FATTY ACIDS (GLYCEROL)
HYDROLYSIS IS USED IN
HYDROLYSIS IS WHEN WATER IS ADDED. -H GIVEN TO ONE MOLECULE AND -OH GIVEN TO THE OTHER.
- BREAK DOWN.
- RELEASE OF ENERGY
WHAT PROVIDES THE CELL WIOTH MOST OF ITS ENERGY
THE OXIDATON OF CARBHYDRATES. A CATABOLIC EVENT.
GLYCOSIS OCCURS WHERE?
CYTOPLASM OF THE EUKARYOTIC CELL.
DEFINE PEPTIDE AND HOW TO COMBINE THEM.
PEPTIDE IS AN INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACID. TO COMBINE TAKE -OH FROM CARBOXYL GROUP OF ONE AND AND -H FROM AMINO GROUP OF THE OTHER. FORMS COVALENT BOND WITH EACH OTHER.
AMINO ACIDS POLAR AND NON POLAR WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
- POLAR IS HYDROPHILLIC.
- NON POLAR IS HYDROPHOBIC
NAME 3 WAYS RNA IS DIFFERENT THAN DNA.
- RNA IS SINGULAR STRAND
- RIBOSE HAS 1 EXTRA OXYGEN
- URACIL NOT THYMINE.
GLYCOSIS. HOW MANY ATP DO YOU PUT IN AND WHAT DO YOU GET OUT?
- 2 OUT
- (2 IN MADE 2 MADE =4 - 2 IN = 2 NET)
- 2 NAHD
NAME THE 3 STEPS PF CELLULAR RESIPRATION IN ORDER.
HOW MANY ATP IN AND WHAT ARE THE RESULTS?
- GLYCOLYSIS 2IN---> 2 OUT
- (2 IN + 2 MADE=4 - 2 IN= 2 GAINED)
- KREBS CYCLE
- ELECTRON TRANSPORT
The Krebs's cycle produces per glucose molecule.
- 2 ATP's,
- 8 NADH's
Organisms that convert nitrogen-containing organic molecules into nitrates.
(A) Decomposers (e.g., bacteria)
(B) Producers (e.g., grasses)
(C) Primary consumers (e.g., mice)
(D) Secondary consumers (e.g., snakes)
(E) Tertiary consumers (e.g., hawks)
- The correct answer is (A) Decomposers (e.g., bacteria).
- Of the list of organisms given, decomposer bacteria are the only ones that can covert nitrogen-containing organic molecules into ammonia. Ammonia, which is a form of nitrogen-containing molecule, is subsequently converted to nitrate that plants can use to synthesize new organic compounds with nitrifying bacteria.
In animals, ritualized contests with little risk of serious injury or death to participants within the species lead to
(A) a stable dominance hierarchy
(B) biological altruism
(C) adaptive radiation
(D) instinctive behavior
(E) a broader habitat
- The correct answer is a stable dominance hierarchy, (A).
- Ritualized combat, such as that found in many wild animal populations, leads to a stable hierarchy; generally one individual is acknowledged to be dominant, and true combat is avoided. This benefits both the winner and the loser, as neither faces death or serious injury in a mock battle.
DEFINE Adaptive radiation
Involves the spread of organisms into open niches and subsequent specialization.
(Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development)
- Response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system.
-  One example is the "bloom" or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients.
Negative environmental effects include hypoxia, the depletion of oxygen in the water, which causes a reduction in specific fish and other animals.
The change in plant types inhabiting an area over time, resulting in a climax community.
Within a given area, the vegetation changes over time, tending towards the climax type of vegetation for that particular area. (Repeated disturbances, of course, interrupt this process, and may in effect reset the clock, so that succession begins anew.)
The inability of two populations to interbreed after being separated by a barrier for a long period of time.
- Recall that the functional definition of a species is a group of organisms that can interbreed with each other but do not interbreed with others. The inability to interbreed after long separation is a sign that speciation has occurred; the two populations now represent two different species.
Plants growing in and around a pond eventually filling in the pond and changing it to a terrestrial habitat.
- This is a specific example of succession, the gradual filling in of a wetland to become a meadow or a forest.
WHAT THE HELL ARE NEPHRONS?
Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys that, while secreting quantities of fluid, reabsorb blood, sugar, and amino acids as well as urea, various ions, and a large amount of water.
filter the blood and reabsorb useful substances
Eutrophication of a lake may occur..
- Eutrophication occurs when chemical fertilizers containing phosphorus and nitrogen wash into a lake causing photoplankton and bottom vegetation to reach high productivity.
- This tremendous growth blocks out light, causing deeper plants to die while certain decomposers use all the oxygen, thus suffocating the fish.
excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen.