Infectious diseases 1

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jaz_walker
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268824
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Infectious diseases 1
Updated:
2014-04-01 18:15:31
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pathology medicine
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pathology
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infectious diseases
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  1. What disease does HZV cause?
    Chickenpox
  2. Where does HZV stay latently?
    dorsal root ganglia
  3. What are the main 3 diseases caused by adenoviruses?
    • URTI,
    • LRI,
    • conjunctivitis
  4. What is the main disease caused by rhinoviruses
    UTRI
  5. What is the main 2 diseases caused by Respiratory syncytial virus?
    • Bronchiolitis,
    • pneumonia
  6. What are the main 3 diseases caused by mumps virus?
    mumps, pancreatitis, orchitis
  7. What is the main disease caused by rotavirus
    Childhood gastroenteritis
  8. Which bacterium contributes to dental placque?
    streptococcus mutans
  9. Which two bacteriae are obligate intracellular bacteria?
    Chlamydia and Rickettsia
  10. Which bacterium is the most common cause of female sterility and blindness?
    Chlamydia thrachomatis
  11. Which bacterium may cause a haemorrhagic vasculitis with CNS injury?
    Rickettsiae
  12. How is rickettsiae transmitted
    By arthropods: ticks (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), mites (scrub typhus), lice (epidemic typhus)
  13. Which disease is caused by Borrelia burgdoferi
    Lyme disease
  14. Which 2 extracellular bacterial pathogens do not have a cell wall?
    Mycoplasma and ureaplasma
  15. What is the name for superficial fungal infections of the scalp and of the foot?
    Tinea capitis, tinea pedis
  16. What is the name for subcutaneous fungal infection?
    mycetoma - these can cause abscesses or granulomas
  17. What is the most common protozoa of red cells?
    Plasmodium
  18. What is the most common protozoa of macrophages?
    Leishmania
  19. What is the most common vaginal protozoa?
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  20. What are the two most prevalent intestinal protozoans?
    Entamoeba histolytica, giaria lamblia (these are motile when attached to intestine)
  21. What three bloodborne protozoa are transmitted by insect vectors?
    Plasodium, trypanosoma, leishmania
  22. Which helminths are circular in cross-section and non segmented?
    Roundworm or nematode
  23. What are 3 examples of intestinal roundworm?
    Ascaris lumbricoides, strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm
  24. What are two examples of roundworm that invade tissue?
    filariae, trichinella spiralis
  25. Which helminths have a head and a ribbon of multiple flat segments?
    Tapeworms
  26. Tapeworms cause cysts within tissues.
    Freebie.
  27. Which helminths are leaf shaped flatworms with prominent suckers?
    Flukes
  28. What are 3 examples of flukes?
    Lung flukes, liver flukes, schistosomes.
  29. How is borrelia burgdorferi transmitted?
    Deer ticks (this is Lyme disease)
  30. Visualisation
    Note most organisms are best visualised at the advancing edge of a lesion, rather than at its centre.
  31. What is an acid fast stain looking for?
    Mycobacteria, nocardiae
  32. Silver stain (3 things)
    Fungi, legionellae, pneumocystis
  33. Periodic acid-Schiff (2 types of things)
    fungi, amebae
  34. Mucicarmine (1 thing)
    cryptococci
  35. Giemsa (2 things)
    leishmaniae, plasmodium
  36. What is caused by arboviruses (2 things)
    yellow fever, encephalitis
  37. This bacteria contaminates and grows in food, causing food poisoning without any bacterial multiplication in the gut
    staph aureus
  38. These two bacteria bind to the intestinal epithelium and multiply, releasing exotoxins that cause watery diarrhoea
    V. cholerae, ETEC
  39. These three bacteriae invade and damage intestinal mucosa, causing ulceration, inflammation and haemorrhage, manifesting as dysentry
    shigella, salmonella, campylobacter
  40. This one bacteria passes through Peyer's patches and mesenterc lymph nodes into the bloodstream, resulting in systemic infection
    salmonella typhi
  41. This helminth invades and damages bile ducts
    ascaris lumbricoides
  42. This helminth causes iron deficiency by sucking blood from intestinal villi
    Hookworms
  43. This helminths causes anaemia by depriving the host of vitamin b12
    Diphyllobothrium
  44. This helminth larva preferentially encysts in muscle
    trichinella spiralis
  45. This helminthic larva preferentially grows in liver or lung.
    echinococcus
  46. These two bacteria cause pneumonia subsequent to influenza
    s. pneumonia, s. aureus
  47. this bacteria is a common rti cause in people with AIDS
    p. jiroveci
  48. This bacteria is a common cause of rti in people post-chemotherapy
    aspergillus
  49. this helminth localises to the urinary bladder and causes cystitis
    schistosoma hematobium
  50. This helminth penetrates the skin, eventually localising to blood vessels of the portal system and mesentary
    schistosoma mansoni
  51. this virus travels by retrograde transport in sensory neurons, where it causes encephalitis, then death
    rabies
  52. This bacteria can cause pus filled fallopian tubes
    n. gonorrhoea (pus is usually caused by extracellular organisms)
  53. this bacteria usually spares alveolar walls in the lung
    s. pneumonia,
  54. these 2 bacteria destroy alveolar walls and form abscesses that heal with scar formation
    s. aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae
  55. pus is usually a sign of what kind of organisms?
    extracellular.
  56. diffuse, predominantly mononuclear, intestitial infiltrate is a sign of what kind of organism?
    viruses, intracellular bacteria, intracellular parasites. Occassionally spirochetes and some helminths.
  57. This would cause lymphocytic infiltration to the liver
    Acute viral hepatitis - lymphocytes feature in acute inflammation)
  58. This would cause perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and endothelial proliferation in the dermis
    secondary syphilis
  59. This would cause granulomatous inflammation with caseation
    tuberculosis
  60. The cytopathic-cytoproliferative reaction is classically caused by what kind of organism
    viruses
  61. these two kinds of viruses form inclusion bodies
    adenoviruses, herpesviruses
  62. these two viruses cause polykaryones (multinucleated fused cells)
    measles, herpesvirus
  63. This bacterium can release powerful toxins causing gangrenous necrosis
    clostridium perfringens
  64. This parasite causes colonic ulcers and liver anscesses characterised by tissue destruction and liquefactive necrosis, without a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
    e. histolytica.
  65. this causes 'pipestem' fibrosis of the liver or bladder wall
    schistosome eggs
  66. this causes constrictive fibrous pericarditis
    m. tuberculosis.
  67. this infection causes cirrhosis in which dense fibrous septa surround nodules of regenerating hepatocytes
    chronic hpv infection.
  68. this may cause cytolytic changes in the lungs of someone with AIDS
    cmv
  69. this may cause interstitial inflammation in the lungs of someone with AIDS
    pneumocystis carinii
  70. if a patient has x lunked agammaglobulinaemia, what are they susceptible to?
    extracellular bacteria and some viruses: rotavirus and enterovirus
  71. T cell defects leave you susceptible to which infections?
    intracellular pathogens (viruses and some parasites)
  72. early complement deficiencies cause susceptibility to what?
    encapsulated bacteria e.g. s. pneumoniae
  73. deficiencies of the late complement components cause susceptibility to what infection?
    neisseria
  74. neutrophil deficiency causes what kinds of infections?
    s. aureus, gram negative bacteria, and fungi
  75. what is impaired tlr3 response associated with?
    childhood hsv encephalitis
  76. IL-17 deficiency is associated with what infection?
    mucocutaneous candidiasis.
  77. this causes granulomatous responses in the lungs, acid fast bacilli and is not TB
    mycobacterium avium
  78. What does a CMV infected cell look like?
    large eosinophilic nuclear inclusion, enlarged cell, with smaller basophillic cytoplasmic inclusions
  79. What does a herpes infected cell look like?
    large nuclear inclusion surrounded by a clear halo
  80. What does a poliovirus infected cell look like?
    No inclusions
  81. What does a VZV infection look like?
    fusion of epithelial cells, causing multinucleate cells, and eosinophilic haloed nuclear inclusions
  82. What does HSV infection look like?
    Much like VZV.
  83. What changes do hep B cause in chronic infection?
    Diffuse granular (ground glass) cytoplasm, reflecting HBsAg

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