Infectious diseases 1
Card Set Information
Infectious diseases 1
What disease does HZV cause?
Where does HZV stay latently?
dorsal root ganglia
What are the main 3 diseases caused by adenoviruses?
What is the main disease caused by rhinoviruses
What is the main 2 diseases caused by Respiratory syncytial virus?
What are the main 3 diseases caused by mumps virus?
mumps, pancreatitis, orchitis
What is the main disease caused by rotavirus
Which bacterium contributes to dental placque?
Which two bacteriae are obligate intracellular bacteria?
Chlamydia and Rickettsia
Which bacterium is the most common cause of female sterility and blindness?
Which bacterium may cause a haemorrhagic vasculitis with CNS injury?
How is rickettsiae transmitted
By arthropods: ticks (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), mites (scrub typhus), lice (epidemic typhus)
Which disease is caused by Borrelia burgdoferi
Which 2 extracellular bacterial pathogens do not have a cell wall?
Mycoplasma and ureaplasma
What is the name for superficial fungal infections of the scalp and of the foot?
Tinea capitis, tinea pedis
What is the name for subcutaneous fungal infection?
mycetoma - these can cause abscesses or granulomas
What is the most common protozoa of red cells?
What is the most common protozoa of macrophages?
What is the most common vaginal protozoa?
What are the two most prevalent intestinal protozoans?
Entamoeba histolytica, giaria lamblia (these are motile when attached to intestine)
What three bloodborne protozoa are transmitted by insect vectors?
Plasodium, trypanosoma, leishmania
Which helminths are circular in cross-section and non segmented?
Roundworm or nematode
What are 3 examples of intestinal roundworm?
Ascaris lumbricoides, strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm
What are two examples of roundworm that invade tissue?
filariae, trichinella spiralis
Which helminths have a head and a ribbon of multiple flat segments?
Tapeworms cause cysts within tissues.
Which helminths are leaf shaped flatworms with prominent suckers?
What are 3 examples of flukes?
Lung flukes, liver flukes, schistosomes.
How is borrelia burgdorferi transmitted?
Deer ticks (this is Lyme disease)
Note most organisms are best visualised at the advancing edge of a lesion, rather than at its centre.
What is an acid fast stain looking for?
Silver stain (3 things)
Fungi, legionellae, pneumocystis
Periodic acid-Schiff (2 types of things)
Mucicarmine (1 thing)
Giemsa (2 things)
What is caused by arboviruses (2 things)
yellow fever, encephalitis
This bacteria contaminates and grows in food, causing food poisoning without any bacterial multiplication in the gut
These two bacteria bind to the intestinal epithelium and multiply, releasing exotoxins that cause watery diarrhoea
V. cholerae, ETEC
These three bacteriae invade and damage intestinal mucosa, causing ulceration, inflammation and haemorrhage, manifesting as dysentry
shigella, salmonella, campylobacter
This one bacteria passes through Peyer's patches and mesenterc lymph nodes into the bloodstream, resulting in systemic infection
This helminth invades and damages bile ducts
This helminth causes iron deficiency by sucking blood from intestinal villi
This helminths causes anaemia by depriving the host of vitamin b12
This helminth larva preferentially encysts in muscle
This helminthic larva preferentially grows in liver or lung.
These two bacteria cause pneumonia subsequent to influenza
s. pneumonia, s. aureus
this bacteria is a common rti cause in people with AIDS
This bacteria is a common cause of rti in people post-chemotherapy
this helminth localises to the urinary bladder and causes cystitis
This helminth penetrates the skin, eventually localising to blood vessels of the portal system and mesentary
this virus travels by retrograde transport in sensory neurons, where it causes encephalitis, then death
This bacteria can cause pus filled fallopian tubes
n. gonorrhoea (pus is usually caused by extracellular organisms)
this bacteria usually spares alveolar walls in the lung
these 2 bacteria destroy alveolar walls and form abscesses that heal with scar formation
s. aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae
pus is usually a sign of what kind of organisms?
diffuse, predominantly mononuclear, intestitial infiltrate is a sign of what kind of organism?
viruses, intracellular bacteria, intracellular parasites. Occassionally spirochetes and some helminths.
This would cause lymphocytic infiltration to the liver
Acute viral hepatitis - lymphocytes feature in acute inflammation)
This would cause perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and endothelial proliferation in the dermis
This would cause granulomatous inflammation with caseation
The cytopathic-cytoproliferative reaction is classically caused by what kind of organism
these two kinds of viruses form inclusion bodies
these two viruses cause polykaryones (multinucleated fused cells)
This bacterium can release powerful toxins causing gangrenous necrosis
This parasite causes colonic ulcers and liver anscesses characterised by tissue destruction and liquefactive necrosis, without a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
this causes 'pipestem' fibrosis of the liver or bladder wall
this causes constrictive fibrous pericarditis
this infection causes cirrhosis in which dense fibrous septa surround nodules of regenerating hepatocytes
chronic hpv infection.
this may cause cytolytic changes in the lungs of someone with AIDS
this may cause interstitial inflammation in the lungs of someone with AIDS
if a patient has x lunked agammaglobulinaemia, what are they susceptible to?
extracellular bacteria and some viruses: rotavirus and enterovirus
T cell defects leave you susceptible to which infections?
intracellular pathogens (viruses and some parasites)
early complement deficiencies cause susceptibility to what?
encapsulated bacteria e.g. s. pneumoniae
deficiencies of the late complement components cause susceptibility to what infection?
neutrophil deficiency causes what kinds of infections?
s. aureus, gram negative bacteria, and fungi
what is impaired tlr3 response associated with?
childhood hsv encephalitis
IL-17 deficiency is associated with what infection?
this causes granulomatous responses in the lungs, acid fast bacilli and is not TB
What does a CMV infected cell look like?
large eosinophilic nuclear inclusion, enlarged cell, with smaller basophillic cytoplasmic inclusions
What does a herpes infected cell look like?
large nuclear inclusion surrounded by a clear halo
What does a poliovirus infected cell look like?
What does a VZV infection look like?
fusion of epithelial cells, causing multinucleate cells, and eosinophilic haloed nuclear inclusions
What does HSV infection look like?
Much like VZV.
What changes do hep B cause in chronic infection?
Diffuse granular (ground glass) cytoplasm, reflecting HBsAg