Anatomy Exam 3

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eerobert
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26883
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Anatomy Exam 3
Updated:
2010-07-16 13:43:19
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Anatomy
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Summer 2010 Test 3
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  1. Motor Tracings
    Frontal Lobe -> Internal Capsule -> Mesencephalon -> Pons -> Medulla -> Ventral Horn -> Ventral Root -> Ramus -> Plexus -> Nerve(s) -> Muscle
  2. Sensory Tracings
    Receptor -> Nerve(s) -> Plexus -> Ramus -> Dorsal Root Ganglion -> Dorsal Root -> Dorsal Horn -> Thalamus -> Internal Capsule -> Parietal Lobe
  3. Cranial Nerves
    • 1. Olfactory: Smell
    • 2. Optic: Vision
    • 3. Oculomotor: Motor
    • 4. Trochlear: Motor
    • 5. Trigeminal: Opthalmic
    • 6. Abducens: Motor
    • 7. Facial: Motor and Acoustic
    • 8. Vestibulocochlear: Learning
    • 9. Glossopharyngeal: Tongue
    • 10. Vagus: Mixed Autonomic
    • 11. Accesory: Swallowing
    • 12. Hypoglossal: Tongue
  4. Functions of the Blood Brain Barrier
    • Plexus at 3rd and 4th ventricles (capillary beds)
    • Prevents passage of unwanted material
    • Actively transports glucose to the brain
    • Increases permeability of hypothalamus and pineal gland
  5. Functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Cushion delicate structures
    • Float brain
    • Provides nutrients and hormones, and removes wastes
  6. Reflex Arc
    • 1. Stimulus
    • 2. Sensory information sent to Central Nervous System
    • 3. Processing and coordination of information
    • 4. Motor command sent
    • 5. Response by effector
  7. Classification of Reflexes
  8. Protection
    • Spinal Cord
    • Vertebrae
    • Meninges
    • Cerebrospinal fluid

    • Brain
    • Skull
    • Meninges
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Blood brain barrier
  9. Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Produced at choroid plexus at each ventricle
    • Goes from lateral ventricle -> intraventricular foramen -> 3rd ventricle -> cerebral aqueduct -> 4th ventricle
    • Goes to subarachnoid space where it travels through brain and spinal cord
    • Enters spinal cord and gets reabsorbed at arachnoid granulations
    • Enters superior sagittal sinus
    • Enters blood system
  10. Effects of sympathetic stimulation
    • Increased alertness
    • Feeling of energy and euphoria
    • Excites cardiovascular and respiratory centers
    • Increase muscle tone
    • Release of glycogen and lipids = energy
  11. General functions of the parasympathetic nervous system
    • Constriction of pupils
    • Secretion by digestive glands
    • Secretion if hormones
    • Increased smooth muscle activity
    • Constriction of respirstory passageways
    • Reduction in heart rate and force of contraction
    • Sexual arousal
  12. Relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
    • Dual innervation
    • Cranial area regions reached by chain ganglia and cranial ganglia
    • Thoracic and abdominal regions innervated by plexuses
  13. Higher order functions
    • Performed by cerebral cortex
    • Involve conscious and unconscious control
    • Involve complex interactions between brain areasa
    • Are subject to learning and modification through time
  14. Reticular activating system
    • Gradations of consciousness
    • Interactions of many brain areas
    • Primary function is to keep you awake and alert
    • Poorly defined network projects onto cerebral cortex
  15. Sensory Pathways
  16. Motor Pathways
  17. Orders of Neurons
    • 1st Order Neuron: Dorsal Root -> Spinal Cord
    • 2nd Order Neuron: Spinal Cord -> Thalamus / Cerebellum
    • 3rd Order Neuron: Thalamus -> Cerebral Cortex
  18. Conscious States of Reticular Activating System
    • Delirium
    • Dementia
    • Confusion
    • Normal consciousness
    • Somnolence
    • Chronic vegetative state
  19. Unconscious States of the Reticular Activating System
    • Asleep
    • Coma
    • Stupor
  20. Somatic and Autonomic Pathways
  21. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
  22. Preganglionic Neuron
    • Myelinated
    • Usually produced Ach
  23. Postganglionic Neuron
    • Unmyelinated
    • Releases Ach or NE as needed
  24. Sympathetic Ganglionic Neurons
  25. Sympathetic Synapses and Receptors
    • 2 Types of Synapses
    • 1. Cholinergic: releases Ach between preganglionic neuron and ganglion
    • 2. Adrenergic: between postganglionic and receptor (Ach and/or NE)
    • 2 Types of Receptors
    • 1. Adrenergic
    • - alpha: Smooth muscle and sphincter, blood vessels
    • - beta: Skeletal, smooth, increased metabolic rate
    • 2. Cholenergic: Respond to Ach, effect sweat glands, general relaxation
  26. Parasympathetic Signals and Receptors
    • -All neurons respond to Ach
    • 2 Types of Receptors
    • 1. Nicotrinic: Respond to Ach in excitatory manner
    • "preganglionic"
    • 2. Muscarinic: Found in neural effector junction
    • Excitatory
    • Inhibitory
  27. Effects of Sympathetic Stimulation
    • Increased Alertness
    • Feeling of energy and euphoria
    • Excites cardiovascular and respiratory centers
    • Increased muscle tone
    • Release of glycogen and lipids = energy
  28. General Senses
    • Temperature
    • Pain
    • Touch
    • Pressure
    • Vibration
    • Proprioception
  29. Special Senses
    • Smell
    • Taste
    • Balance
    • Hearing
    • Vision
  30. Receptors
    • Each receptor has characteristic sensitivity
    • - Receptor specificity
    • - Receptor Field: Area monitored by a single receptor cell
  31. Adaptation
    • Peripheral (sensory) Adaptation: Receptors or sensory neurons alter their levels of activity
    • Synaptic Fatigue:
    • - Phasic receptors: Fast-adapting receptors
    • - Tonic receptors: Slow-adapting receptors

    • Central Adaptation: inhibition of nuclei
    • - Restricts the amount of detail arriving at the cerebral cortex
  32. Receptors General Senses
    • Exteroceptors provide information about the external environment
    • Proprioceptor monitors body position
    • Interoceptors monitor conditions inside the body
  33. Receptors for Special Senses
    • Nociceptors respond to tissue damage
    • Thermoreceptors respond to change in temperature
    • Mechanoreceptors are stimulated by physical distortion, contact, or pressure
    • Chemoreceptors monitor the chemical composition of body fluids.
  34. Main Functions of Digestive System
    • Ingestion
    • Mechanical Processing
    • Digestion
    • Secretion
    • Absorption
    • Excretion
    • Compaction
  35. Pancreas
    Exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes; endocrine cells secrete hormones
  36. Mesenteries
    • 1. Falciform Ligament: Diaphragm to liver
    • 2. Greater Omentum: Greater curvature of stomach, wraps around small intestine goes back and attached to large intestine and posterior wall
    • 3. Lesser Omentum: Lesser curvature of stomach to liver and posterior wall
    • 4. Mesocolon: Large intestine to posterior wall
    • 5. Mesentary Proper: Small intestine to posterior wall
  37. Functions of Mesentary
    • Support organs, veins, arteries, lymphatic, adipose, connective tissue
    • Provides nutrients, O2, collects waste, collects bacteria
  38. Swallowing
    • Buccal Phase: Compress bolus against hard palate, elevates soft palate, tongue retracts
    • Pharyngeal Phase: Bolus touches posterior pharyngeal wall, epiglottis tips backwards, bolus enters esophagus
    • Esophageal Phase: Upper esophageal sphincter opens, peristalsis begins, lower esophageal sphincter opens
  39. Histology of Digestive System
  40. Cerebrum
    • Conscious thought, memory, and learning
    • Frontal Lobe: Primary Motor Cortex
    • Occipital Lobe: Primary Visual Cortex
    • Parietal Lobe: Primary Sensory Cortex
    • Temporal Lobe: Primary Auditory and Olfactory Cortex
  41. Basal Ganglia Nuclei
    • Controls large subconscious movements
    • Involved in starting, stopping, and intensity of movement
  42. Thalamus
    • Sensory "relay station" for cerebral cortex
    • Primitive awareness of sensory information
  43. Hypothalamus
    • Main control center for ANS
    • Center of emotion (rage, fear, pleasure, libido)
    • Sleep-wake cycles
    • Endocrine control
  44. Cerebral Peduncle
    Contain "pyramidal" tracts descending from cortex towards spinal cord
  45. Corpora Quadrigemina
    • Involved in visual reflexes (tracking of eyes on a moving target)
    • Involved in auditory reflexes ("startle reflex" to loud sound)
  46. Pons
    • Bridge between cerebral cortex and cerebellum for coordination of voluntary movement
    • Smooths transition between inhalation and exhalation
  47. Cerebellum
    • Receives information about equilibrium, movement of body, motor commands from cerebral cortex
    • Smooths and coordinates body movements
  48. Medulla Oblongata
    • Pathway for sensory relay
    • Visceral centers for autonomic function
    • Works with hypothalamus
  49. Parts of the Brain

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