Cornerstone exam

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krissywill
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268845
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Cornerstone exam
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2014-04-03 14:49:47
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Exam 2
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  1. What is Research
    • process through which new knowledge is discovered
    • an intensive activity that is based on the work of others and generates new ideas to pursue and questions to answer
  2. Research methods (14) use chart
    • Nonexperimental research-a variety of different methods that describe relationships between variables, without any attention to cause-and-effect relationships
    • Experimental Research-examines the cause-and-effect relationship between variables
  3. Attributes of high quality research
    • 1. is based on the work of others
    • 2. can be replicated
    • 3. is generalized to other settings is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory
    • 4. is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory
    • 5. is doable
    • 6. generates new questions or is cyclical in nature
    • 7. is incremental
    • 8. is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society
  4. Model of scientific inquiry
    • the goal of this model is to find the truth, to use a scientific method that results in a reasonable and sound answer to important questions what will further out understanding of human behavior.
    • 1. asking the question
    • 2. identifying the important factors
    • 3. formulating a hypothesis-results when the questions are transformed into statements that express the relationships between variables like an "if...then" statement
    • 3. Collecting relevant information
    • 4. testing the hypothesis
    • 5. working with the hypothesis
    • 6. reconsidering the theory
    • 7. asking new questions
  5. Types of research
    • descriptive research-focuses on events that occur in the present
    • true experimental research- examines direct cause and effect relationships
    • quasi-experimental research- focus on cause and effect, but they use preassigned groups
    • correlational research- examines the relationship between variables
    • Qualitative research- studies phenomena within the social and cultural contexts in which they occur
  6. Basic and applied research
    basic research (sometimes called pure research) is research that has no immediate application at the time it is completed, where as applied research does
  7. Dependent variables
    • represents the measure that reflects the outcomes of a research study
    • the outcome that may depend on the experimental treatment or on what the research changes or manipulates
    • outcome variable
    • results variable
    • criterion variable
  8. Independent variable
    • represents the treatments or conditions that the researcher has either direct or indirect control over to test their effect on a particular outcome
    • also known as the treatment variable-it is within this context the term is most often used
    • manipulated in the course of an experiment to understand the effects of this manipulation on the dependent variable
    • treatment variable
    • factor
    • predictor variable
  9. Independent and dependent variable
    • independent variables should be independent of each other while dependent variables should be sensitive to changes in different levels of the independent variable
    • confounding- when variables compete to explain the effects
  10. Hypothesis
    • "educated guess"
    • reflect the general problem statement or the question that was the motivation for undertaking the research study
  11. null hypothesis
    • statements of equality
    • no relationship between variables
  12. research hypothesis
    • definite statement of the relationship between two variables
    • statements of inequality
  13. nondirectional research hypothesis
    reflects a difference between groups, but the direction of the difference is not specified
  14. directional research hypothesis
    • reflects a difference between groups, and the direction of the differences is specified
    • the purpose is that it tests directly as one step in the research process
  15. Population and sample
    • populations is referred to as the larger group
    • sample is the smaller group selected from a population
    • samples should be selected from populations in such a way that you maximize the likelihood that the sample represents the population as much as possible
    • most important implication of ensuring similarity between the two is that, once the research is finished, the results based on the sample can be generalized to the population
  16. statistical significance
    a measure of how much risk we are willing to take when reaching a conclusion about the relationship between variable
  17. significance level
    the risk associated with not being 100% confident that the difference is caused by what you think and may be due to some unforeseen factor
  18. Value of literature review
    • provides the framework for the research proposal
    • sets the stage for completion of a successful research proposal and a successful study
    • take syou chronologically through the development of ideas, shows you how some ideas were left by the wayside because of lack of support, and tells you how some were confirmed as being truths
    • an extensive and complete review of the literature gives you that important perspective to see what has been done and where you are going- crucial to a well-written, well-documented, well-planned report
  19. International Business
    any commercial transaction that crosses the borders of two or more nations
  20. Imports
    goods and services purchased abroad and brought into a country
  21. exports
    goods and services sold abroad and sent out of a country
  22. e-business (e-commerce)
    • use of computer networks to purchase, sell, or exchange products, service customers, and collaborate with partners
    • when businesses or consumers use technology to conduct transactions
    • making it easier for companies to make their products abroad, not simply import and export finished goods
  23. Globalization
    • trend toward greater economic, cultural, political, and technological interdependence among national institutions and economies
    • a trend charachterized by denationalization (national boundaries becoming less relevant) and is different from internationalization (entities cooperating across national boundaries)
    • the greater interdependence that globalization is causing means an increasingly freer flow of goods, money, services, people. and ideas across national borders
  24. Forces driving gloablization
    • falling barriers to trade and investment
    • technological innovation
    • increasing competition among nations by leveling the global business playing field
  25. culture
    set of values, beliefs, rules, and institutions help by a specific group of people
  26. ethnocentricity
    the belief that ones own ethnic group or culture is superior to that of others
  27. values
    • ideas, beliefs and customs to which people are emotionally attached
    • include concepts such as honesty, marital faithfulness, freedom and responsibility
  28. attitudes
    • positive or negative evaluations, feelings and tendencies that individuals harbor toward object or concepts
    • reflect underlying values
  29. customs
    habits or ways of behaving in specific circumstance are passed down through generations in a culture
  30. social group
    • collections of two or more people who identify and interact with each other
    • contribute to each individuals identity and self image
    • examples family and gender
  31. decision making in teams
    integrated sequence of activities that includes gathering, interpreting, and exchanging information; creating and identifying alternative courses of action; choosing among alternatives by integrating the often differing perspectives and opinions of team members; and implementing a choice and monitoring its consequences
  32. group
    • groups perform better than independent individuals on a wide range or problems
    • group performance increases over that of individual members performance as the demonstrability of the task increases
  33. group think
    occurs when team members place consensus above all other priorities including using good judgment when the consensus reflects poor judgment, as a result of group pressures toward conformity of opinion
  34. rational model of group DM
    • Orientation-
    • define the problem, set goal, plan the process
    • Discussion-
    • gather info., identify alternatives, evaluate alternatives
    • DM-
    • Choose group solution
    • Implementation-
    • adhere to the decision, evaluate the decision, seek feedback
  35. DM pitfalls and solutions
    • 1. Groupthink- monitor team size, provide face-saving mechanism for teams, the risk technique (group discussion situation designed to reduce group members fears about making decisions, invite different perspectives, appoint a devils advocate
    • 2. escalation of commitment-set limits, avoid the bystander effect, avoid tunnel vision, recognize sunk costs, avoid bad mood, external review
    • 3. the Abilene paradox- confront the issue in a team setting, conduct a private vote, minimize status differences, frame the task as a decision to be made, provide a formal forum for controversial views, take responsibility for failure
    • 4. group polarization
    • 5. unethical decision making- accountability for behavior, reward model, appropriate role models, eliminate conflicts of interest, create cultures of integrity
  36. importance of a balanced team
    balance in the membership of a team gives the company the differing perspectives of several stakeholders. Variety of opinion makes for more complete discussion of issues and eventually better decision making
  37. steps in planning team balance
    • write down the specific goals you want to achieve through your team
    • list any constraints (such as personnel availability, budget factors, and company policies or procedure) that will limit your choice of team member
    • describe skill or expertise categories (not specific people) that should be represented on the team
    • describe personaility types that will help the team function optimally
    • nominate in wrtinting several people, if possible for each of the skill or expertise categories you have described. For each peron on this list, write down an educated guess about his or her basic personality type
    • select team member who fulfill the desired skill or expertise categories and provide a useful distributution of personality types in relation to you project goals
    • inform these individuals in a motivating, morale-building way of their membership on the team (you will want to make yourself available for individual conferences to deal with questions and concerns)
    • plan carefully for an inspiriting first meeting of the team, at which basic information regarding goals, team leadership, available resources, milestones, deliverables, and evaluation measures are thoroughly discussed
  38. cultural influences
    • be flexible and accepting of differences in values, beliefs, standards and mores even if they do not understand or personally believe in these differences
    • be sensitive to verbal nuances and nonverbal behavior, as intercultural team members attempt to express their feelings as well as their thoughts
    • be knowledgeable about the religious, cultural, business, social and dietary practices of other cultures
    • be open in sharing aspects of your own culture at the same time you are learning about the cultures of you teammates
  39. cultural adjustments
    • change is good
    • time controls American business people
    • Americans are all created equal
    • I am an individual with special interests and needs, including a right to privacy
    • Americans are self made people
    • competition makes Americans feel alive
    • the future looks bright
    • work is the only game in town
    • americans tell it like it is
    • what counts is the bottom line
  40. communication in the intercultural team meeting
    • mixed signals due to a misreading of nonverbal cues has proven a barrier in many intercultural team meetings
    • business posture
    • eye contact
    • many companies are attempting to deal with the cultural conflict that appears to be occurring between Millennial workers (those born after 1985) and older workers
    • life experiences of older workers in the organization make bonding and productive relationships difficult within an organizational team
  41. diversity
    • a state of unlikeness
    • the condition of being different
    • all of the ways in which people are different
  42. culture
    • refers to our way of life, including everything that is learned, shared, and transmitted from one generation to the next
    • language, values, rules, beliefs, and even the material things we create are all part of ones culture
  43. cultural landscape
    • different lifestyles, traditions, and perspectives that can be found in the U.S and throughout the world
    • fluid and complex
  44. alterations of cultural landscape
    • languages
    • work/ life issues
    • use of technology
    • surnames
  45. views of diversity
    • assimilation- the process in which people lose their cultural differences and blend into the wider society
    • pluralism- process which cultural differences are acknowledged and preserved
  46. diversity consciousness
    understanding, awareness and skills in the are of diversity
  47. steps in developing diversity consciousness
    • examining ourselves and our worlds
    • expanding our knowledge of others and their worlds
    • stepping outside ourselves
    • gauging the level of the playing field
    • checking up on ourselves
    • following through
  48. diversity education
    • refers to all the strategies that enable us to develop diversity consciousness
    • through diversity education we develop awareness understanding and variety of skills in the area of diversity, these skills are referred to as diversity skills
    • one of the primary ways of increasing diversity consciousness
  49. strategies for developing diversity consciousness
    • take an active role in educating yourself
    • put yourself in a learning mode in any multicultural setting
    • remember that your own life experiences are one of many important sources of knowledge
    • move beyond your personal comfort zone
    • be modest
    • don't be too hard on yourself if misunderstandings arise
    • realize that you are not alone
    • never stop learning
  50. cultural encapsulation
    meaning a lack of contact with cultures of our own, promotes insensitivity to cultural differences
  51. impact of the Civil rights act and affirmative action on workplace diversity
    • antidiscrimination provision
    • the hope what that this law would narrow that vast socioeconomic gap between races
    • emphasized equality of result for groups, and assumed that the best way to improve the situations of blacks was through quotas or special preferences

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