unit 3 ch6 chem107
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unit 3 ch6 chem107
chem107 chapter powerpoint unit
powerpoint notes from chapter 6, for unit 3 test
the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled
a solution is what type of mixture?
the substance in the mixture present in lesser quantity
the substance present in the largest quantity
solution where the solvent is water
solutions can be ?
liquids are well as solids and gases
examples of solutions?
oxygen and several trace gases are dissolved in the gaseous solvent,nitrogen
brass and other homogeneous metal mixtures in the solid state
meaning it can conduct electricity
as a solution forms, the ____ pulls solute particles apart and surrounds them aka ____ ___
the ____ ___ between solute and solvent particles must be strong enough to compete with those between solute particles and those between solvent particles
____ dissociates and forms an electrolyte solution, which means it is?
sugar is a _____ because?
it doesn't form any plus or minus's
(doesn't break apart)
factors affecting solubility?
like dissolves like
the more similar the ____ ____, the more likely one substance is to be soluble in water
general properties of liquid solutions?
clear, transparent, no visible properties
may have color
electrolytes are formed from solutes that are soluble ionic compounds
nonelectrolytes do not dissociate
volumes of solute and solvent are not additive
in a sugar solution what happens?
molecular compounds do not dissociate when they dissolve
in a salt solution what happens?
ionic compounds dissociate into ions when they dissolve
a suspension of tiny particles in some medium
ex of colloids?
colloidal suspension conditions?
due to large size of particles
appears identical to solution from the naked eye
smaller than 1nm, have solution
larger than 1nm, have a precipitate
in a colloidal suspension if the particle is smaller than 1nm?
has a solution
in a colloidal suspension if a particle is larger than 1 nm then?
they have a precipitate
the ability of a colloidal suspension to scatter light
a solution has?
a colloidal suspension has?
light as haze, scatters light
what happens during the tyndall effect?
see a haze when shining light through the mixture
in solutions, light passes right through without scattering
ex of colloidal suspension?
how much of a particular solute can dissolve in a certain solvent at a specified temperature?
factors which affect solubility?
polarity of solute and solvent
the more different they are, the lower the solubility
polarity of solute and solvent
increase in temperature usually increases solubility
usually has no effect,
if solubility is of gas in liquid, directly proportional to applied pressure
a solutions that contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a particular temperature
contains more solute than can be dissolved at the current temperature
a saturated solutions?
if full and holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature
less than the maximum amount of solute for that temperature is dissolved in the solvent
in this type of solution you can add more
in this type of solutions, the solvent holds more solute than is normally possible at that temperature
____ solubility the ____ the temperature you go
some particles are going out and some are settling in
example of a saturated solution?
when ____ is reached the rates of dissolution and precipitation are equal, there is some dissolved and some undissolved solute
__ soda goes flat quicker than ___ soda
the number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
gases are most soluble at?
____ decrease significantly at higher temps
facilitates O2 and CO2 exchange in lungs
CO2 solubility less when warm
amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
concentration of a solution has an effect on?
melting and boiling point
grams of solute/mL of solution x100
grams of solute/grams of solution X100
g solute/g solution X 10
g solute/g solution x 10
amount of solute (mol)/ volume of solution (L)
dilution of solutions?
moles of solute per kg of solvent?
properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of the solute particles, rather than the identity of the solute
four colligative properties of solutions?
vapor pressure lowering
boling point elevation
freezing point depression
vapor pressure of a liquid is based on?
number, not the size
vapor pressure of a solution results from?
escape of solvent molecules from liquid to gas phase
when a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, vapor pressure of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute
freezing point depression?
a nonvolatile solute depresses the freezing point of the solvent and lowers vapor pressure
boiling point elevation?
a nonvolatile solute elevates the boiling point of the solution and lowers vapor pressure
how much pressure you apply to concentrated side to stop it from going back and forth
allows solvent but not solute to diffuse from one side to another
___ molecules can not cross the membrane as they are too large
the movement of solvent from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a semipermeable membrane
what requires pressure to stop the flow
if the solutions on both sides of the membrane are the same (the osmotic pressure is the same), then the solutions are?
the amount of pressure required to stop the flow across a semipermeable membrane
the molarity of particles in solution
osmotic pressure ____ when you add stuff
___ ___ requires maintenance of the same osmotic pressure inside and outside the cell
solute concentration of fluid surrounding cells higher than inside results in a hypertonic solution causing water to flow into the surroundings, causing collapse?
solute concentration of fluid surrounding cells too low, results in a hypotonic solution causing water to flow into the cells causing rupture?
have identical osmotic pressures and no osmoric pressure difference across the cell membrane
tonicity and the cells?
pickling a cucumber is due to a?
hypertonic brine due to osmosis
water is often referred to as the ?
excellent solvent for polar molecules
what percent of the human body is water?
two common ways of expressing concentration of ions in solution?
moles per liter (molarity)
equivalents per liter (eq/L)
the number of individual ions
equivalents per change emphasizes?
emphasis on change
equivalent is defined by?
two most important cations in blood?
Na+ and K+
the transporting of Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membrane
____ ___ must be expended to make concentration of ions difference on each side of the cells membrane
danger in the body occurs when?
Na+ and K+ both in blood and in cells becomes too high or too low
anions in the blood?
proteins in the blood?
blood clotting factors
carriers of nonpolar substances which cannot dissolve in water
the blood transports?
nutrients and waste products