unit 3 ch6 chem107

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unit 3 ch6 chem107
2014-04-01 23:20:42
chem107 chapter powerpoint unit

powerpoint notes from chapter 6, for unit 3 test
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  1. the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled
  2. a solution is what type of mixture?
  3. the substance in the mixture present in lesser quantity
  4. the substance present in the largest quantity
  5. solution where the solvent is water
    aqueous solution
  6. solutions can be ?
    liquids are well as solids and gases
  7. examples of solutions?
    • air
    • alloys
  8. oxygen and several trace gases are dissolved in the gaseous solvent,nitrogen
  9. brass and other homogeneous metal mixtures in the solid state
  10. meaning it can conduct electricity
  11. as a solution forms, the ____ pulls solute particles apart and surrounds them aka ____ ___
    • solvent
    • solvates them
  12. the ____ ___ between solute and solvent particles must be strong enough to compete with those between solute particles and those between solvent particles
    intermolecular forces
  13. ____ dissociates and forms an electrolyte solution, which means it is?
    • NaCl
    • polar
  14. sugar is a _____ because?
    • nonelectrolyte
    • it doesn't form any plus or minus's
    • (doesn't break apart)
  15. factors affecting solubility?
    like dissolves like
  16. the more similar the ____ ____, the more likely one substance is to be soluble in water
    intermolecular attractions
  17. general properties of liquid solutions?
    • clear, transparent, no visible properties
    • may have color
    • electrolytes are formed from solutes that are soluble ionic compounds
    • nonelectrolytes do not dissociate
    • volumes of solute and solvent are not additive
  18. in a sugar solution what happens?
    molecular compounds do not dissociate when they dissolve
  19. in a salt solution what happens?
    ionic compounds dissociate into ions when they dissolve
  20. a suspension of tiny particles in some medium
    colloidal suspension
  21. ex of colloids?
    • aerosols
    • foams
    • emulsions
  22. colloidal suspension conditions?
    • due to large size of particles
    • appears identical to solution from the naked eye
    • smaller than 1nm, have solution
    • larger than 1nm, have a precipitate
  23. in a colloidal suspension if the particle is smaller than 1nm?
    has a solution
  24. in a colloidal suspension if a particle is larger than 1 nm then?
    they have a precipitate
  25. the ability of a colloidal suspension to scatter light
    tyndall effect
  26. a solution has?
    no haze
  27. a colloidal suspension has?
    light as haze, scatters light
  28. what happens during the tyndall effect?
    • see a haze when shining light through the mixture
    • in solutions, light passes right through without scattering
  29. ex of colloidal suspension?
    • fog
    • clouds
    • aerosols
    • foams
  30. how much of a particular solute can dissolve in a certain solvent at a specified temperature?
  31. factors which affect solubility?
    • polarity of solute and solvent
    • temperature
    • pressure
  32. the more different they are, the lower the solubility
    polarity of solute and solvent
  33. increase in temperature usually increases solubility
  34. usually has no effect,
    if solubility is of gas in liquid, directly proportional to applied pressure
  35. a solutions that contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a particular temperature
    saturated solution
  36. contains more solute than can be dissolved at the current temperature
    supersaturated solution
  37. a saturated solutions?
    if full and holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature
  38. less than the maximum amount of solute for that temperature is dissolved in the solvent
  39. in this type of solution you can add more
  40. in this type of solutions, the solvent holds more solute than is normally possible at that temperature
  41. ____ solubility the ____ the temperature you go
    • lower
    • higher
  42. some particles are going out and some are settling in
    dynamic equilibrium
  43. example of a saturated solution?
    dynamic equilibrium
  44. when ____ is reached the rates of dissolution and precipitation are equal, there is some dissolved and some undissolved solute
  45. __ soda goes flat quicker than ___ soda
    • warm
    • cold
  46. the number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
    henrys law
  47. gases are most soluble at?
    low temperatures
  48. ____ decrease significantly at higher temps
  49. facilitates O2 and CO2 exchange in lungs
  50. CO2 solubility less when warm
    carbonated beverages
  51. amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
  52. concentration of a solution has an effect on?
    • physical properties
    • chemical properties
  53. physical properties?
    melting and boiling point
  54. chemical properties?
    solution reactivity
  55. mass/volume percent?
    gramsĀ of solute/mL of solution x100
  56. mass/mass percent?
    gramsĀ of solute/grams of solution X100
  57. ppt?
    g solute/g solution X 103
  58. ppm?
    g solute/g solution x 106
  59. molarity?
    amount of solute (mol)/ volume of solution (L)
  60. dilution of solutions?
  61. moles of solute per kg of solvent?
  62. properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of the solute particles, rather than the identity of the solute
    colligative properties
  63. four colligative properties of solutions?
    • vapor pressure lowering
    • boling point elevation
    • freezing point depression
    • osmotic pressure
  64. vapor pressure of a liquid is based on?
    number, not the size
  65. vapor pressure of a solution results from?
    escape of solvent molecules from liquid to gas phase
  66. when a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, vapor pressure of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute
    raoult's law
  67. freezing point depression?
    a nonvolatile solute depresses the freezing point of the solvent and lowers vapor pressure
  68. boiling point elevation?
    a nonvolatile solute elevates the boiling point of the solution and lowers vapor pressure
  69. how much pressure you apply to concentrated side to stop it from going back and forth
    osmotic pressure
  70. allows solvent but not solute to diffuse from one side to another
    semipermeable membrane
  71. ___ molecules can not cross the membrane as they are too large
  72. the movement of solvent from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a semipermeable membrane
  73. what requires pressure to stop the flow
    osmotic pressure
  74. if the solutions on both sides of the membrane are the same (the osmotic pressure is the same), then the solutions are?
  75. the amount of pressure required to stop the flow across a semipermeable membrane
    osmotic pressure
  76. the molarity of particles in solution
  77. osmotic pressure ____ when you add stuff
  78. ___ ___ requires maintenance of the same osmotic pressure inside and outside the cell
    cell function
  79. solute concentration of fluid surrounding cells higher than inside results in a hypertonic solution causing water to flow into the surroundings, causing collapse?
  80. solute concentration of fluid surrounding cells too low, results in a hypotonic solution causing water to flow into the cells causing rupture?
  81. have identical osmotic pressures and no osmoric pressure difference across the cell membrane
    isotonic solutions
  82. tonicity and the cells?
    • crenation
    • hemolysis
    • isotonic
  83. pickling a cucumber is due to a?
    hypertonic brine due to osmosis
  84. water is often referred to as the ?
    universal solvent
  85. aqueous solutions?
    excellent solvent for polar molecules
  86. what percent of the human body is water?
  87. two common ways of expressing concentration of ions in solution?
    • moles per liter (molarity)
    • equivalents per liter (eq/L)
  88. molarity emphasizes?
    the number of individual ions
  89. equivalents per change emphasizes?
    emphasis on change
  90. equivalent is defined by?
    the charge
  91. two most important cations in blood?
    Na+ and K+
  92. the transporting of Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membrane
    active transport
  93. ____ ___ must be expended to make concentration of ions difference on each side of the cells membrane
    cellular energy
  94. danger in the body occurs when?
    Na+ and K+ both in blood and in cells becomes too high or too low
  95. anions in the blood?
    • Cl-
    • HCO3
  96. proteins in the blood?
    • blood clotting factors
    • antibodies
    • albumens
  97. carriers of nonpolar substances which cannot dissolve in water
  98. the blood transports?
    nutrients and waste products