ANT: Human Origin exam 2

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joelenegonzalez
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ANT: Human Origin exam 2
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2014-04-30 18:59:15
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Human origin
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exam 2
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  1. (Primate characteristics)
    primate hands and feet
    • Prehensile organs- grasping
    • Pentadactyly- 5 independent mobile fingers and toes
    • opposable thumbs
    • flat nails and sensitive pads
  2. (Primate characteristics)
    eyes and orbits
    • stereoscopic vision (eyes face forward)
    • post orbital bar
    • post orbital spectrum
    • color vision
    • progressive development of large and complex brain
  3. (Primate characteristics)
    primate ear
    Auditory bulla- formed entirely from the petrosal bone
  4. (Primate characteristics)
    molars and diet
    • enhanced crushing functions- seen in molars
    • heterodont dentition
  5. Grades of primate evolution
    • prosimians
    • -> lemurs and tarsiers
    • monkeys
    • apes
    • humans
  6. Prosimians
    • lack post orbital closure
    • grooming claws
    • dental formula 2:1:3:3
    • --->dental comb
    • primarily nocturnal
    • nigh vision
    • olfaction-wet nose
  7. new world monkeys
    (Platyrrhini)
    • post orbital closure
    • dry nose
    • wide spectrum-nostrils face outward
    • have tails
    • live in tress
    • retain 3rd pre molar
    • ---> 2:1:3:3 or 2:1:3:2
    • no ear tube
  8. old world monkeys
    (cercopithecoide)
    • narrow nostrils that face downward
    • many different habitats (not just in tress)
    • dental formula 2:1:2:3
    • ear tube!!
    • limbs equal in length
    • y-4 bilophodont molars
  9. Paleocene
    • 65-55 mya
    • climate starts cool and ends warm
    • proto-prosimians: carpolestes 55mya
    • ----region: north America, Europe, china
    • no postorbital bar
    • petrosal bulla
    • grasping hind feet
    • generalized molars sugg. # of diff foods (e.g insects)
  10. Eocene
    • 55-34 mya
    • climate warm and ends cool
    • Euprimates: primates of modern aspects
    • north America, Eurasia, Africa
    • petrosal bulla
    • opposable big toe and nails
    • eyes forward with post orbital bar
    • 2 super familie
    • ----> adapoidea (lemur like)
    • fused manible, no tooth comb
    • morphology and diet of lemurs
    • ---> omomyoidea (tarsier like)
    • have tarsier shape face and eye sockets
  11. oligocene
    • 34-23 mya
    • oligopithecidae-catopithecus 2:1:2:1, insectivores
    • propliopithecidae- aegyptopithecus 2:1:2:3, ibs 13-18
    • size of howler monkeys
    • sexually dimorphic
    • canines
    • frugivore-folivore
    • arboreal
    • quadrupeds
  12. miocene
    • 23-5 mya
    • apes
    • africa
    • dental apes y-5 molars
    • big canines
    • no tail- monkey like post cranial skeleton
    • somewhat larger brain
    • forest living arboreal quadrupeds
  13. possible primitive hominins
    • orrorin tugenensis
    • ar. ramidus
    • ar. kadabba
    • sahelanthrops tchadensis
  14. sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • 7-6 mya
    • large incisors and reduced canines (worn @ tip); small molars with intermediate enamel; reduced prognathism, large brow ridge, and posterior sagittal crest, ape-like nuchal crest, anteriorly positioned formen magnum
    • *gallery forest and savanna, near lake
  15. orrorin tugenesis
    • 6-5.7 mya
    • "original man"
    • large sharp canines (v-shaped) with honing pre molars
    • small molars with thick enamel: robust femur (asymmetric cortical bone distribution on the femoral neck)
    • dry forest and woodland
  16. ar. kadabba
    • 5.8-5.2 mya
    • reduced canines, small molars with intermediate enamel; facultative bipedialism (bowl shaped pelvis, divergent toe)
    • woodland habitat
  17. ar. ramidus
    • 4.4 mya
    • reduced canines
    • small molars with intermediate enamel
    • facultative biped
    • bowl shape pelvis and divergent toe
    • woodland habitat
  18. archaic hominins
    • australopithicus.kenyanthropus
    • small brain, large teeth, bipeds
    • (anamensis(like afarensis but earlier), afarensis(like bahrelghazali) , platyops, africanus, sediba)
  19. kenyanthropus platyops
    • meave leaky
    • KNM-WT 40000, 3.5-3.2 mya
    • disc. 1900, lomekwi river, west turkana
    • brain size 400-450 cc
    • flat area under nose bone, tall check region
    • small molars with thick enamel
    • foramen magnum forward
  20. au. africanus
    Mrs. ples
    • sts 5, r. broom
    • small ridge
    • no crest
    • big teeth
    • bigger brain cast
    • more modern than afarensis
  21. AU. africanus
    (Taung child)
    • 3.0-2.5 mya
    • disco. 1924/1947
    • taung south Africa, r. dart
    • large molars with thick enamel
    • large incisors
    • small canines, lacks diastema
    • anterior pillars and pragmatic face
    • brain size 485 cc
    • open grasslands
  22. au. anamensis
    • 4.2-3.9 mya
    • reduced canines, large molars
    • thick enamel, curved digits
    • puffy knee joint
    • woodland habitat
  23. au. afarensis
    • "lucy" ethiopia
    • large incisors with reduced canines and slight diastema
    • large molars with thick enamel
    • curved digits
    • extreme sexual dimorphism
    • 400-550 cc
    • open woodland
  24. au. sediba
    • Darrell deruter
    • discov. 2010, malapa south africa
    • 2.0-1.8 mya
    • gracile jaw and face
    • relatively small teeth
    • long arms, finger bones dnt curve
    • h. like pelvis
    • brain size 420 cc
    • extreme mosaicism
  25. megadonts
    parathropus aethiopicus,p. boisei,p. robustus, and au. garhi
  26. au. garhi
    • tiny crest in back of skull
    • pragmatic- stick out at bottom of face
    • reduction in diastema, large wide canines
    • molarized premolars
    • huge molars
    • 450cc
    • **garhi may be a member of p. aethiopicus
  27. p. robustus
    • 2-1.4 mya
    • very small incisors and canines
    • lack diastema
    • large molars with thick enamel
    • flat face with anterior pillars
    • sagittal crest
    • 530 cc
    • open grasslands
  28. p. aethiopicus
    • "the black skull"
    • west turkanan, kenya
    • KNM-WT 17000
    • large anterior teeth, small canines
    • lack diastema
    • large molars with hyper thick enamel
    • prognathic face
    • sagittal crest
    • heart shaped foramen magnum
    • 410 cc
    • open grassland
  29. p. boisei
    • back of skull- sagittal crest present
    • very small incisors and canines, lack diastema, huge molars with hyper thick enamel; flat face, heart shape formen magnum
    • 410-530cc
    • open grasslands
    • large jaw with big teeth and chewing muscles
    • ----> temporalis/ masseter muscles
    • flat face- moves position of cheek bones forward.
    • brain size slightly larger
  30. cerebral rubicon
    • boundary you have to cross to be in the genus homo
    • ---->brain size of at least 750 cc
  31. transitional hominins
    • homo. habilis
    • h. ergaster- no longer transition but homo..., bc of brain size
    • h. rudolfensis
  32. h. rudolfensis
    • KNM-ER 1470
    • 1.8-1.9 mya
    • larger brain 775 cc
    • robust face
    • flat face like k. platyops
    • large molars thick enamel
    • round occipital large brain
    • wide range of habitats
  33. h. habilis
    • KNM-ER 1813*aka twiggy
    • sub-nasal pragmatism
    • more parabolic teeth
    • large incisors, narrow molars
    • suborbital depression- curved brow ridge
    • flexed occipital region
    • 510 cc- 590cc
    • assoc with stone tools (oldowan tools)
    • wide range of habitats
  34. h. ergaster (genus homo)/ erectus
    • KNM-ER 3733
    • many specimens found in asia and africa
    • brain size range from 600-1065 cc
    • **h. georgicus in this sub. cat.
  35. to be in genus homo
    (wood and collard)
    6 criteria
    • body mass should approach h. sapiens
    • body proportions should approach h. sapiens
    • full bipeds
    • tooth and jaws close to h. sapiens
    • cranial capacity close to h. sapiens
    • ontogenetic dev. close h. sapiens
  36. pre-modern homo
    • h. erectus/ergaster
    • h. heidebergensis-later neanderthal
    • h. antecesso
    • h. flor- hobbit
  37. h. morphology
    • reduced molars with thick enamel, alveolar prognathism
    • shelf like supraorbital torus, occipital torus and sagittal keel
    • cranium has low maxium width and thick cranial bone
    • brain size larger than 900cc
    • clear evidence of an external projecting nose, but no chin
    • modern postcranial proportions
  38. anatomically modern homo
    homo sapiens sapien
  39. Hominoidea
    • hylobatidae-hylobates-gibbions (lesser)
    • pongidae-pan, gorilla, pongo (great)
    • hominidae- homo **sometimes pan and gorilla put in this genus
    • where gorillas split first than pan and homo last
  40. evo systematics
    classification based on grade boundaries on major adaptive shifts
  41. opportunistic hunting
  42. ambush hunting
  43. arboreal hunting
  44. persistant hunting
  45. savanna hyp
  46. killer ape hyp
    • dart-accumulation of bones:bones as tools
    • brain-accumulation of bones:early hominins prey not predators

    **hominins found in bone yards of caves with other animals
  47. woodland hyp.
  48. early hominin traits
    • not brain size but local motion
    • change in pelvis- moves to bowl shape
    • elongated lower limbds
    • angled femur
    • straight knee joints-larger bones to support more weight, enlarged surface areas of the knee
    • arch at foot (distance walking)
    • big toe lined with other toes, no more grasping
    • foramen magnum moves forward (under skull)
    • barrel shaped ribs no more funnel
    • a spine with 2 distinct curves to support weight and promote straight posture
  49. osteodontokeratic
    • osteo=bone
    • donto=teeth
    • keratic= horn

    group that can be ID based on materials used/ created as tools
  50. erectine morphology
    KNOW MEANINGS
    • shelf like supraorbital torus
    • occipital torus
    • sagittal keel
    • thick cranial bones (like rudolfensis)
    • cranial capacity ~ 900cc
    • alveolar prognathism
    • no chin
  51. hominin dental morphology
    • carnivores- large canines
    • frugivores- large incisors (fruit)
    • folivores- small incisor, high shearing crest on molars (like scissors, leaf eater)

    hominins- reduced canines, small incisors, and low rounded cusps
  52. dental microwear
    • high resolution x ray for teeth patterns
    • large pits- dug up roots (ex chacma baboon)
    • rods- each row rep a day
    • fine lines-leaves (ex gelada baboon)
    • polished- meat

    • ** a. afarensis- similar to gorillas
    • p. robustus- more pits and scratches but reduced incisor use
  53. chemical analysis
    • diet and carbon isotopes
    • 2 diff types of photosynthesis
    • --->leaves diff chemical signi.13c/12c ratio
    • c3- photosynthesis is used by most plants (browser)
    • c4- used by tropical grasses (grazers)
    • **a. africanus both grazer and browser
    • **p. robustus higher ratio of plants with c4 or animals who ate c4

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