Nutrition Test 3

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Nutrition Test 3
2014-04-02 07:36:12
vitamins minerals

vitamins, minerals, water
Show Answers:

  1. Define the term vitamin and list three characteristics of vitamins as a group
    • Essential organic substances
    • 1) Not enough
    • produced in body naturally
    • 2) Produce deficiency symptoms when missing
    • 3) Yield no energy
  2. Classify the vitamins according to whether they are fat soluble or water soluble
    • Fat Soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, and K
    • Water Soluble: B Vitamins and Vitamin C
  3. Vitamin A:
    • Major functions: promote vision and growth, prevent drying of skin/eyes, promote
    • immune function, cardio disease prevention, acne medication
    • Deficiency: blindness, impaired immunity, white lumps on hair follicles
    • Toxicity: reduced bone density, birth defects, muscle pain
    • - Food sources: animal products (retinol), dark greens, orange fruits (beta)
  4. Vitamin D:
    • - Major functions: activated by enzyme in liver/kidneys, sun exposure, derived from
    • cholesterol, regulates blood calcium, influences normal cell development
    • - Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia, misshapen bones, muscle spasms, brittle bones, pain in
    • bones
    • - Toxicity: over absorption of calcium, calcium in organs, growth retardation
    • - Food sources: D3 (animal) milk, salmon, beef, D2 (plant)
  5. Vitamin E:
    • - Major functions: antioxidant, stabilizes cell membranes, protection of fatty acids
    • and Vitamin A, easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
    • - Deficiency: red blood cell breakage, nerve damage
    • - Toxicity: augments effects of anti-clotting medication, blood thinner
    • - Food sources: plant oils, green vegetables, wheat germ
  6. Vitamin K
    • - Major functions: synthesized by bacteria in colon, role in calcium-binding, newborns
    • injected at birth because not found in breast milk
    • - Deficiency: hemorrhaging
    • - Toxicity: none
    • - Food sources: liver, cabbage, milk
  7. Thiamin (B1)
    • - Major functions: coenzyme used in energy metabolism, sensitive to heat
    • - Deficiency: Beriberi; muscular weakness, apathy, confusion, irritability
    • - Toxicity: none
    • - Food sources: canned ham, pork chops, wheat germ
  8. Riboflavin (B2)
    • - Major functions: coenzyme forms participate in energy yielding metabolic pathways, easily destroyed by UV light and radiation
    • - Deficiency: ariboflavinosis; inflammation of mouth and tongue, cracks at corners of mouth, skin lesions
    • - Toxicity: none
    • - Food sources: milk, enriched grains, eggs
  9. Niacin (B3)
    • - Major functions: part of coenzymes NAD and NADP used in energy metabolism
    • - Deficiency: pellagra; diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, inflamed tongue, bilateral rash on
    • areas exposed to sunlight
    • - Toxicity: hives, liver damage
    • - Food sources: tuna, chicken, salmon
  10. Pantothenic Acid (B5)
    • - Major functions: part of coenzyme A used in energy metabolism, easily destroyed by
    • food processing
    • - Deficiency: hypoglycemia, increased sensitivity to insulin
    • - Toxicity: none
    • - Food sources: organ meats, mushrooms, broccoli
  11. Vitamin B6 (PLP/PMP)
    • - Major functions: activate enzymes, needed for metabolism of carbs, fats, protein, synthesize amino acids and neurotransmitters, athletes may need more
    • - Deficiency: scaly dermatitis, anemia, depression, abnormal brain pattern
    • - Toxicity: depression, fatigue, headaches, nerve damage, paralysis
    • - Food sources: salmon, bananas, avocados
  12. Folate (B3)
    • - Major functions: part of coenzymes THF and DHF, used in DNA synthesis and used in new cell formation, sensitive to heat, oxidation, UV light
    • - Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia, spina biffida (birth defects)
    • - Toxicity: masks B12 deficiency
    • - Food sources: asparagus, spinach, lentils
  13. Vitamin B12
    • - Major functions: absorption requires intrinsic factor and protein from salivary
    • gland, synthesized by bacteria, found in animal products only, folate metabolism, maintenance of myelin sheaths, breaks down fatty acids
    • - Deficiency: pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, paralysis
    • - Toxicity: none
    • - Food sources: clams, oysters, lobster
  14. Vitamin C (Absorbic Acid)
    • - Major functions: synthesized by most animals, sensitive to heat and oxygen, collagen synthesis, antioxidant, thyroxin synthesis, resistance to infection
    • - Deficiency: scurvy; anemia, hemorrhages, poor wound healing, muscle degeneration, smokers need extra
    • - Toxicity: diarrhea, nausea, hot flashes, UT problems, kidney stones
    • - Food sources: orange, brussels sprouts, strawberries
  15. Evaluate the use of vitamin supplements with respect to their potential benefits and
    hazards to the body.
    • - Pro: correct deficiencies, improve nutrition, reduce disease, improve defenses
    • - Con: toxicity, misinformation, self-diagnosing, false sense of security
  16. List and briefly explain the functions of water in the body.
    • - Body temperature regulation: water absorbs heat, body sweats, skin cools
    • - Removal of body waste via urine: urea excretion, sodium excretion
    • - Amniotic fluid, joint lubricants, saliva
  17. Discuss healthy water intake and output levels to maintain water balance.
    11 cups women, 15 cups men; imput is the same as intake (10 cups)
  18. Classify the minerals as major or trace minerals.
    • - Major: Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Magnesium
    • - Trace: Iron, Zinc
  19. Sodium
    • Major functions: retains water, muscle contraction, conduction of nerve impulses
    • Deficiency: vomiting, diarrhea, excessive perspiration, coma
    • Toxicity: edema, acute hypertension, osteoporosis
    • Food sources: table salt, processed foods
  20. Potassium
    • Major functions: maintains fluid/electrolyte balance, supports cells, assists in
    • nerve impulse transmission, lowers blood pressure
    • Deficiency: muscular weakness, paralysis, confusion, heart failure
    • Toxicity: muscular weakness, vomiting
    • Food sources: bananas, orange juice
  21. Calcium
    • Major functions: 99% in bones and teeth, makes up 40% of minerals in body, lowers
    • blood pressure, bone formation and maintenance, blood clotting
    • Deficiency: osteoporosis, stunted growth
    • Toxicity: constipation, kidney stones
    • Food sources: milk, yogurt
  22. Phosphorous
    • Major functions: ion in intracellular fluid, bone and tooth strength, acid/base
    • balance, Vitamin D enhances absorption
    • Deficiency: none
    • Toxicity: bone loss
    • Food sources: yogurt, cheese
  23. Magnesium
    • Major functions: bone mineralization, building protein, muscle contraction
    • Deficiency: weakness, confusion, convulsions
    • Toxicity: diarrhea, alkalosis, dehydration
    • Food sources: nuts, whole grains
  24. Iron
    • Major functions: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin, red blood cells, enzyme cofactor, immune funtion
    • Deficiency: anemia; paleness, brittle nails, fatigue, poor growth
    • Toxicity: infections, fatigue, skin pigmentation, organ damage
    • Food sources: spinach, oat bran
  25. Zinc
    • Major functions: DNA synthesis, growth, protein metabolism, development of sexual organs and bones, normal development of fetus
    • Deficiency: growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, hair loss
    • Toxicity: loss of appetite, impaired immunity, low HDL, iron deficincies
    • Food sources: meats, shellfish
  26. Explain the role of nutrition in maintaining a healthy blood pressure.
    More Calcium and Potassium and less Sodium lower blood pressure, more fruits and veggies